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不同水氮水平下小麦品种对光、水和氮利用效率的权衡

张凯,陈年来*,顾群英   

  1. (甘肃农业大学资源与环境学院, 兰州 730070)
  • 出版日期:2016-07-18

Trade-offs among light, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of wheat cultivars under different water and nitrogen application levels.

ZHANG Kai, CHEN Nian-lai*, GU Qun-ying   

  1. (College of Resources and Environmental Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China).
  • Online:2016-07-18

摘要: 通过再裂区设计田间试验,以3个春小麦品种(和尚头、西旱2号和宁春4号)为材料,设置两个灌溉水平(充分灌水4500 m3·hm-2和有限灌水3000 m3·hm-2)和5个施氮水平(0、75、150、225、300 kg N·hm-2),研究小麦光能利用效率(LUE)、水分利用效率(WUE)、氮素利用效率(NUE)对水氮的响应特性及其相互关系.结果表明: 3个小麦品种间LUE、WUE和NUE差异显著.在一定范围内增加灌水和施氮量则LUE升高,过量施氮则LUE下降.强抗旱和中等抗旱品种(和尚头和西旱2号)WUE受灌水量的影响比不抗旱品种(宁春4号)小.施氮可以调节小麦WUE,中等施氮水平(和尚头和西旱2号在150 kg N·hm-2时,宁春4号在225 kg N·hm-2时)有最高的WUE.随施氮量增加,植株氮素累积量先增后减,氮素干物质生产效率(NUEb)、氮素收获指数(NHI)、氮肥农学利用效率(NAE)和氮肥偏生产力(PFP)均显著降低.灌溉水平对NHI无显著影响;随灌水量增加,小麦氮素积累量显著增加,强抗旱和中等抗旱品种NUEb和NAE显著降低,不抗旱品种 NUEb和PFP显著升高,对其他指标无显著影响.3个小麦品种氮素获取能力与氮素利用效率呈极显著负相关,NUEb与LUE、WUE呈显著负相关,LUE与WUE呈显著正相关,春小麦氮素利用效率与光能利用效率、水分利用效率间存在明显的权衡关系.当灌水量为3000 m3·hm-2,强抗旱和中等抗旱品种在150 kg N·hm-2,不抗旱品种在225 kg N·hm-2时,有较高的资源利用效率.

关键词: 灌水, 资源利用效率, 春小麦品种, 氮素, 权衡

Abstract: To study the responses of light use efficiency (LUE), water use efficiency (NUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in wheat to water and nitrogen application levels and their interrelationship, a field experiment designed in splitsplitplots was conducted with three spring wheat cultivars (Heshangtou, Xihan No.2, Ningchun No.4), under two irrigation levels (full irrigation 4500 m3·hm-2 and limited irrigation 3000 m3·hm-2) and five nitrogen application levels (0, 75, 150, 225, 300 kg N·hm-2). The results showed that LUE, WUE and NUE of three wheat cultivars differed significantly. The LUE increased as irrigation and nitrogen quantity increased in a certain range, but decreased under excessive nitrogen application. The WUE of strong and moderate drought resistant cultivars (Hsahangtou and Xihan No.2) were less affected by irrigation than nondrought resistant cultivar (Ningchun No.4). Nitrogen application could regulate WUE of wheat, and the highest WUE at medium nitrogen levels (strong and moderate drought resistant cultivars in 150 kg·hm-2, non-drought resistant cultivar in 225 kg·hm-2). As the nitrogen application level increased, nitrogen accumulation in plants increased first and then decreased, nitrogen dry matter production efficiency (NUEb), nitrogen harvest index (NHI), nitrogen agronomic use efficiency (NAE), and nitrogen partial factor productivity (PFP) were all decreased significantly. Irrigation had no significant effect on NHI. As the irrigation level increased, nitrogen accumulation of wheat increased significantly, the NUEb and NAE of strong and moderate drought resistant cultivars decreased significantly, the NUEb and PFP of the nondrought resistant cultivars increased significantly, while it had no significant effects on other indicators. Extremely significantly negative correlation between nitrogen acquisition ability and nitrogen use efficiency was found in all three wheat cultivars, and NUEb was significantly negatively correlated with LUE and WUE, LUE was significantly positively correlated with WUE, demonstrating clear tradeoffs among nitrogen use efficiency to light use efficiency and water use efficiency of spring wheat. Higher resource utilization efficiencies were achieved under irrigation of 3000 m3·hm-2, and application of 150 kg N·hm-2 for strong and moderate drought resistant cultivars and 225 kg N·hm-2 for non-resistant cultivar.

Key words: irrigation, spring wheat cultivar, nitrogen, resource utilization efficiency, trade off.