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不同覆盖材料对夏秋苹果根区土壤硝酸盐代谢的影响

张瑞雪,杨洪强*,徐颖,吕婷雯,曹辉,宁留芳,周春然,范伟国   

  1. (山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院/作物生物学国家重点实验室, 山东泰安 271018)
  • 出版日期:2016-08-18

Effects of different mulching materials on nitrate metabolism in soil of apple rootzone in summer and autumn.

ZHANG Rui-xue, YANG Hong-qiang*, XU Ying, LYU Ting-wen, CAO Hui, NING Liu-fang, ZHOU Chun-ran, FAN Wei-guo   

  1. (College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China).
  • Online:2016-08-18

摘要: 以3年生新红星苹果树为试验材料,在春季将稻草苫、农用地毯、透明塑料膜和园艺地布覆盖地表,于夏秋季调查根区土壤硝化反硝化作用、硝酸还原酶(NR)和亚硝酸还原酶(NiR)活性以及铵态氮、硝态氮、亚硝态氮含量和植株生长的变化.结果表明: 4种覆盖处理均降低了夏季土壤硝化强度和夏秋之交的土壤NiR活性,提高了秋季土壤铵态氮含量以及夏秋之交的土壤反硝化强度、NR活性和铵态氮含量,降低了夏秋季土壤硝化强度、反硝化强度和NR活性的变异系数;稻草苫提高了夏季和秋季土壤反硝化强度与硝态氮含量,降低了夏季土壤NR和NiR活性;在4种处理中,稻草苫覆盖的土壤硝化与反硝化强度及NR活性在整个夏秋季的变异系数最低;农用地毯降低了夏季土壤反硝化强度,提高了夏季土壤NR和NiR活性、夏秋之交土壤硝态氮含量和秋季土壤反硝化强度;透明塑料膜降低了夏季土壤硝态氮含量,提高了夏季土壤亚硝态氮含量、夏秋之交土壤硝态氮含量以及秋季土壤硝化强度和NiR活性;园艺地布提高了夏季土壤反硝化强度、夏秋之交和秋季土壤的硝化强度以及秋季土壤硝态氮含量.4种覆盖处理均促进了植株生长,其中稻草苫和园艺地布促进新梢和干径增粗的效果更显著;4种覆盖处理对夏秋季土壤硝酸盐代谢的影响不同,但对土壤硝酸盐代谢与转化都具有稳定作用,其中稻草苫的稳定效果最好.

关键词: 根区土壤, 覆盖, 稻草苫, 农用地毯, 硝酸盐代谢, 苹果

Abstract: This study explored the effects of mulching straw mat, agricultural carpet, transparentplastic film and horticultural fabric on nitrificationdenitrification, nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in rootzone soil grown with threeyear old apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Starkrimson) during summer and autumn. Results showed that the four treatments decreased nitrification intensity in summer soil, NiR activity in summerautumn soil and the variation coefficient of nitrificationdenitrification intensity and NR in both summer and autumn soil. The treatments increased the denitrification intensity, NR activity, ammonium nitrogen contents in summerautumn soil and ammonium nitrogen contents in autumn soil. Straw mat treatment increased denitrification intensity and nitrate nitrogen contents in both summer and autumn soil and decreased the activity of NR and NiR in summer soil. The coefficient of variation of nitrificationdenitrification intensity and NR activity treated by mulching straw mat was lower than those in the other treatments  in both summer and autumn soil. Agricultural carpet increased the NR and NiR activity in summer soil, the nitrate nitrogen contents in summerautumn soil and the denitrification intensity in autumn soil and decreased denitrification intensity in summer soil. Transparentplastic film increased the nitrite nitrogen contents in summer soil, the contents of nitrate nitrogen in summerautumn soil, the nitrification intensity and NiR activity in autumn soil, and decreased nitrate nitrogen contents in summer soil. Horticultural fabric increased denitrification intensity in summer soil, nitrification intensity in summerautumn and autumn soil and the nitrate nitrogen contents in autumn soil. The four mulching treatments all promoted plant growth. In the four mulching treatments, the new shoot and trunk thickening growth were more under straw mat and horticultural fabric treatments. The four mulching treatments had different effects on nitrate metabolism in summer and autumn soil, but they were able to stabilize the soil nitrate metabolism and transformation. Among the treatments, straw mat had the best stable effect.

Key words: root-zone soil, agricultural carpet, straw mat, mulching, apple, nitrate metabolizing.