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黑龙江省玉米气候生产力演变及其对气候变化的响应

李秀芬*,赵慧颖,朱海霞,王萍,王秋京,王铭,李宇光   

  1. (黑龙江省气象科学研究所, 哈尔滨 150030)
  • 出版日期:2016-08-18

Evolution of maize climate productivity and its response to climate change in Heilongjiang Province, China.

LI Xiu-fen*, ZHAO Hui-ying, ZHU Hai-xia, WANG Ping, WANG Qiu-jing, WANG Ming, LI Yu-guang   

  1. (Heilongjiang Institute of Meteorological Science, Harbin 150030, China).
  • Online:2016-08-18

摘要: 在气候变化背景下,深入揭示玉米气候生产力的变化趋势及其空间差异、明晰玉米气候资源利用规律,可为黑龙江省农业生产宏观决策提供科学依据.基于黑龙江省72个气象站1981—2014年的气象资料和对应的产量资料,采用逐步订正、空间插值、线性趋势分析等方法,研究玉米的光合、光温、气候生产力的时空变化特征、主要影响因素和增产潜力,并对未来不同气候情景下玉米气候生产力进行评估.结果表明: 研究期间,黑龙江省玉米光合、光温和气候生产力平均值分别为26558、19953和18742 kg·hm-2;在空间分布上均表现为平原高山地低、由西南向东北逐渐减少;光合、光温、气候生产力均表现为显著增加趋势,其增幅分别为378、723和560 kg·hm-2·(10 a)-1,且辐射量和气温的增加对黑龙江省玉米生产具有正效应;玉米气候生产力对气候变化响应明显,松嫩平原西部因光能资源的减少导致玉米光合生产力降低,气温升高则在一定程度上弥补了光照带来的负面效应,玉米光温生产力下降趋势有所减缓,北部和东部对气候变暖的响应表现尤为明显,玉米光温生产力表现为明显上升趋势,而松嫩平原西南部及三江平原易旱区则对降水变化反映敏感;玉米实际单产与其气候生产力比率的平均值仅为24.1%,仍有75.9%的潜力有待开发;未来“暖湿型”气候对提高玉米气候生产力有利,而“冷干型”气候则不利于玉米气候生产力的提高.

关键词: 增产潜力, 气候情景, 玉米, 气候生产力变化, 影响因素

Abstract: Under the background of climate change, revealing the change trend and spatial difference of maize climate productivity indepth and understanding the regularity of maize climatic resources utilization can provide scientific basis for the macrodecision of agricultural production in Heilongjiang Province. Based on the 1981-2014 meteorological data of 72 weather stations and the corresponding maize yield data in Heilongjiang Province, by the methods of step by step revisal, spatial interpolation and linear trend analysis, this paper studied the photosynthetic productivity (PP), lighttemperature productivity (LTP), and climatic productivity (CP) of spring maize, and their temporal and spatial variation characteristics, main influencing factors and light energy utilization efficiency, and evaluated the maize climate productivities under different climate scenarios in the future. The results showed that during the study period, the mean PP, LTP and CP in Heilongjiang Province were 26558, 19953, 18742 kg·hm-2, respectively. Maize PP, LTP and CP were high in plains and low in mountains, and gradually decreased from southwest to northeast. PP, LTP and CP presented significantly increasing trends, and the increase rates were 378, 723 and 560 kg·hm-2·(10 a)-1, respectively. The increase of radiation and temperature had positive effect on maize production in Heilongjiang Province. The potential productivity of maize presented significant response to climate change. The decrease of solar radiation led to the decline of PP in western Songnen Plain, but the increased temperature compensated the negative effect of solar radiation, so the downward trend of LTP was slowed. The response to climate warming was particularly evident in North and East, and LTP was significantly increased, which was sensitive to the change of precipitation in southwest of Songnen Plain and part of Sanjiang Plain. The average ratio of maize actual yield to its climate productivity was only 24.1%, there was still 75.9% to be developed. In the future, the warm and wet climate would benefit the improvement of maize climate productivity, while the cold and dry climate would make an adverse impact.

Key words: climate scenarios, yield improving potential., climate productivity change, influencing factors, maize