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基于案例的中国森林生态系统服务功能评价

冯继广1,丁陆彬1,王景升2*,姚萍萍1,姚帅臣1,王志凯1,2#br#   

  1. (1中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872; 2中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101)
  • 出版日期:2016-05-18

Case-based evaluation of forest ecosystem service function in China.

FENG Ji-guang1, DING Lu-bin1, WANG Jing-sheng2*, YAO Ping-ping1, YAO Shuai-chen1, WANG Zhi-kai1,2#br#   

  1. (1School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China; 2Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China).
  • Online:2016-05-18

摘要: 基于《森林生态系统服务功能评估规范》(LY/T 1721—2008),搜集得到全国101个案例点的森林生态系统服务功能价值评估数据,并依据价值系数对森林生态系统服务功能进行综合分析.结果表明:中国森林生态系统服务功能单位面积总价值为6.11万元·hm-2,各项服务功能单位面积价值高低排序为涵养水源(2.44万元·hm-2)>保育土壤(1.15万元·hm-2)>生物多样性保护(1.00万元·hm-2)>固碳释氧(0.98万元·hm-2)>净化大气环境(0.28万元·hm-2)>森林游憩(0.23万元·hm-2)>森林防护(0.19万元·hm-2)>积累营养物质(0.16万元·hm-2),其中,涵养水源、保育土壤、生物多样性保护和固碳释氧是中国森林生态系统的主导服务功能.保护区森林生态系统服务功能单位面积价值高于县域,保护区的建立对于生物多样性保护和服务功能的发挥具有促进作用,但其在森林游憩功能上还存在不足,需要进一步提升.不同自然地区森林生态系统的主导服务功能存在差异,各项服务功能在空间上表现出不同的分异特征,其中,华南地区森林生态系统的单位面积总价值最高,为11.36万元·hm-2.服务功能总价值与森林面积、森林蓄积量之间的幂回归相关系数(R2)分别为0.905(P<0.01)、0.860(P<0.01),说明森林面积和蓄积是影响森林生态系统服务功能及其总价值的两个重要因素;此外,纬度和年均降水量都对服务功能单位面积价值存在显著影响.

关键词: 森林生态系统, 价值评估, 自然地理区划, 服务功能, 价值系数

Abstract: The data of valuation of forest ecosystem service function (FESF) in 101 primary case studies of China were collected and obtained based on Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China (LY/T 1721—2008). FESF was then analyzed synthetically in terms of value coefficient. The results showed that the average value per unit area (VPUA) of FESF in China was 6.11×104 yuan·hm-2, and the order of VPUA of each service function was: water conservation (2.44×104 yuan·hm-2)> soil conservation (1.15×104 yuan·hm-2)> biodiversity conservation (1.00×104 yuan·hm-2)> carbon fixation and oxygen release (0.98×104 yuan·hm-2)> atmosphere environmental purification (0.28×104 yuan·hm-2)> forest recreation (0.23×104 yuan·hm-2)> action of forest against natural calamities (0.19×104 yuan·hm-2)> nutrient accumulation(0.16×104 yuan·hm-2). Water conservation, soil conservation, biodiversity conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release were the four dominant service functions of forest ecosystem in China. The VPUA of FESF of the reserve level was higher than that of county level. The establishment of reserves played positive roles in biodiversity conservation and enhancement of service function, but the service function of forest recreation still existed with some insufficiency, and it needed to be further improved. Dominant service functions of forest ecosystem varied in different physicographic regions, and each type of service function presented different differentiation characteristics in space. The VPUA of FESF in South China was the highest up to 11.36×104 yuan·hm-2. The power regression correlation coefficients (R2) of the total value of FESF with forest area and forest stock volume were 0.905 (P<0.01) and 0.860 (P<0.01), respectively, indicating that forest area and forest stock volume were the two key factors affecting FESF and its total value. Moreover, latitude and mean annual precipitation also had significant effect on the VPUA of FESF.

Key words: forest ecosystem, value coefficient, service function, physiographic regionalization., valuation