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Table of Content

    19 October 2009, Volume 20 Issue 10
    Articles
    Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan.
    2009, 20(10):  2315-2322. 
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    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (R
    R) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P<0.01), while the RR rate had less difference between the two forests. Soil temperature and moisture were the key factors affecting the SR,RR and HR. The SR and HR rates in the two forests were rainy season>dry-hot season>foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season>foggy season>dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season>rainy season>dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%,P<0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 ℃ to 32 ℃, theQ10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.
    Effects of Pinus massoniana plantation stand density on understory vegetation and soil properties
    2009, 20(10):  2323-2331. 
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    By using plot investigation and sampling analysis methods, the understory vegetation and soil properties of Pinus massoniana plantations with diff
    erent stand density in subtropical area were studied in Daqingshan, Guangxi Province. In the P. massoniana plantations after 14-year natural growth, the understory species diversity index of shrub layer increased with the increase of stand density from 1050 trees·hm-2 to 1800 trees·hm-2, but decreased when the stand density further increased to 2250 trees·hm-2. Herb species diversity index was not sensitive to the stand density change. With increasing stand density, shrub biomass had the same variation trend as that of shrub species diversity index, while herb biomass decreased with increasing stand density. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the soil (0-20 cm) physical and chemical properties between the plantations with different stand density. The soil nutrient contents except those of total P and available K and P had the same variation trend with that of the understory species diversity index of shrub layer. Soil available K and P contents fluctuated with stand density, whereas soil total P content was higher when the stand density was 2100 trees·hm-2. In the plantations with moderate stand density (1800 trees·hm-2), soil waterholding capacity and soil porosity were higher, and soil bulk density was lower.
    Effects of nitrogen fertilization on fine root lifespan of Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelinii
    2009, 20(10):  2332-2338. 
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    Root observation tubes (minirhizotrons) were used to study the effects of nitrogen addition on the fine root growth of Fraxinus mandshurica and  Larix gmelinii, with the correlations between the fine root lifespan and nitrogen availability analyzed. After the nitrogen addition, the fine root number of
    F. mandshurica and L. gmelinii had a decreasing trend, but the fine root diameter became larger and the branching ratio decreased. The survival rate of F. mandshurica fine roots increased, and the median root lifespan prolonged 105 days, compared with the control. No significant responses to the nitrogen addition were observed in the survival rate of L. gmelinii fine roots. The first-order fine roots with smaller diameter, the roots in surface soil (0-15 cm), and the fine roots newly born in spring and summer were vulnerable to extend their lifespan by nitrogen addition, suggesting that the fine r
    oots with higher physiological activity were easily to be affected by nitrogen fertilization.
    Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China
    2009, 20(10):  2339-2344. 
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    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree speci
    es. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the windthrow of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3∶1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1∶1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH>15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2∶1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3·hm-2, which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand.  Mixture of  Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.
    Effects of root system and litter of Chinese fir on soil microbial properties
    2009, 20(10):  2345-2350. 
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    A simulation test was conducted to study the effects of the root system and litter of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lancceolata) on soil microbial pro
    perties. After the amendment with C. lancceolata root system, the soil microbial biomass C, basal respiration, total organic C, and microbial quotient increased significantly (P<0.05), while soil metabolic quotient (qCO2) presented an opposite trend. In the treatment amended with C. lancceolata litter, the soil basal respiration and qCO2 decreased significantly (P<0.05), whereas soil microbial biomass C, total organic C, and microbial quotient had less change. A significant interaction between C. lancceolata root system and litter was observed on soil basal respiration and qCO2. The qCO2 had significant positive correlations with soil total organic C (R2=0.209) and dissolved organic C (R2=0.325), suggesting that the C use efficiency of soil microbes decreased with increasing soil organic C content. Comparing with litter, the root system of C. lancceolata played more important roles in soil ecological processes.
    Phenotypic diversity of natural Cyclocarya paliurus populations seed traits
    2009, 20(10):  2351-2356. 
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    With the seeds from nine natural Cyclocarya paliurus populations as test materials, their phenotypic traits, including 1000-seed weight, seed size, seed diameter, seed thickness, and seed diameter/thickness ratio, were investigated, and the phenotypic diversity among and within the populations were studied by the methods of ANOVA analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and correlation analysis. Significant differences were observed in the 1000-seed weight, seed size, seed diameter, and seed thickness among and within the populations, and in the seed diameter/thickness ratio within the populations, illustrating that there existed high phenotypic diversity of seed traits at these two levels. The mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient (V) of test seed traits was 20.54%, i.e., the variation among the populations was far smaller than that (79.46%) within the populations. The seed traits had different correlation degrees with geographical factors, and most affected by mean annual air temperature. According to the hierarchical cluster analysis based on the Euclidean distance, the nine natural Cyclocarya paliurus populations could be classified into three groups.
    Spatiotemporal distribution pattern of soil temperature in forest gap of Pinus koraiensis dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing’an Mountains
    2009, 20(10):  2357-2364. 
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    By using grid and transect methods, measurement plots were established in forest gap of Pinus koraiensis dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing’an Mountains, and soil surface thermometer and bendedtube thermometer were placed at each plot. The soil surface temperature, its maximum and minimum temperature, and the temperature at 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm soil depths were measured from May to September in 2006, aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution pattern of soil temperature in the forest gap in study area. The high-value region of soil surface temperature in forest gap was not at gap center, but had an apparent diurnal variation, with the sequence of northwestern, northern, and eastern si
    des of the gap. Within this highvalue region, the maximum temperature from high to low was in the time order of 14:00, 12:00, 10:00 and 16:00. At any other time, the soil surface temperature in forest gap distributed evenly, with no high-value region appeared. The complexity degree and patch grades of spatial distribution of soil surface temperature were different in months, and their high-value regions were at the north-western and eastern sides of the gap, with an asymmetric distribution. The mean diurnal range of soil surface temperature was bigger in the tree’s early and late growth periods (May and September), but relatively smaller in fast growth period. As for the mean daily and monthly soil temperature at 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm depths, a bimodal behavior was observed in east-west direction. The mean daily temperature in north-south direction exhibited an unapparent single peak behavior, and the mean monthly temperature except in May presented a single peak variation pattern.
    Responses of photosynthetic pigments of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis to durative waterlogging
    2009, 20(10):  2365-2369. 
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    With the invasive plant Spartina alterniflora and indigenous plant Phragmites australis in Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve of Shanghai as test objects, the responses of their photosynthetic pigments to durative waterlogging were studied during the growth season in 2008. The basic composition and the content of the pigments differed with plant species, and their responses to durative waterlogging also differed. Under durative waterlogging stress, S. alterniflora had the decreased contents of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid but the increased chlorophyll a/b and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratios, whereas P. australis had the increased pigment contents and rather constant chlorophyll a/b and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratios. After the waterlogging stress relieved, the pigment contents of S. alterniflora increased and its chlorophyll a/b and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratios decreased to the levels of the control, whereas the pigment contents of P. australis were significantly higher than the control. Both S. alterniflora and P. australis showed a compensatory effect after the stress relieved. P. australis could better adapt to the waterlogging stress than S. alterniflora, being able to be used as a substitutive plant for the restoration of coastal wetlands.
    Effects of plant species combination and water body nutrient level on the biomass accumulation and allocation of three kinds functional plants
    2009, 20(10):  2370-2376. 
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    Four nutrient levels, i.e., 0.5 mg N·L-1 and 0.1 mg P·L-1 (I), 1.5 mg N·L-1 and 0.3 mg P·L-1 (II), 4.5 mg N·L-1 and 0.9 mg P·L-1 (III), and 13.5 mg N·L-1 and 2.7 mg P·L-1 (IV), were installed to study the effects of water body’s nutrient level, plant species combination, and their interactions on the biomass accumulation and allocation of invasive floating species Eichhornia crassipes, native rooted leaf floating species Jussiaea stipulacea,  and submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis. The total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea,  either in monoculture or in mixed-culture, ncreased with increasing water body’s nutrient level, their total biomass in treatments III and IV being averagely 54.47% and 102.63% higher than that in treatments I and II, respectively. Under different plant species combination, the total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of V. spiralis showed a declining trend with the increase of nutrient level, and the total biomass of V. spiralis in treatments III and IV was averagely 45.88% lower than that in treatments I and Ⅱ. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that water body’s nutrient level had significant positive effects on the biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea but negative effects on that of V. spiralis, and the effects of plant species combination varied with target plant species.
    Potential distribution areas of alien invasive plant Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae) in China
    2009, 20(10):  2377-2383. 
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    Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae), a potential exotic invasive weed to agro-ecosystem and rangeland ecosystem, has recently invaded Tianjin City and
     Hebei Province (Hengshui and Langfang) in North China, and is spreading further. Based on its current geographical distribution in the world, the potential distribution areas of this weed in China were predicted by using CLIMEX software, aimed to assess the potential risks of this invasive weed. Following provinces in China could be the potential areas being invaded by F. bidentis, i.e., Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, among which, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and part of Xizang would be at high risk.
    An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset
    2009, 20(10):  2384-2390. 
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    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km×8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and “VI-Ts” (vegetation indexland surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i.e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images.
    Effects of salt and waterlogging stress at post-anthesis stage on wheat grain yield and |quality
    2009, 20(10):  2391-2398. 
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    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of salt (ST), waterlogging (WL), and their combination (SW) at post-anthesis on the grain yield and its starch and protein components of wheat cultivars Yangmai 12 and Huaimai 17. Comparing with the control, treatments ST, WL, and SW, especially ST and SW, decreased the allocation of nitrogen and carbon assimilates at pre- and post-anthesis to the grains significantly, resulting in an obvious decrease of grain yield and its protein and starch contents. Both ST and SW had significant negative effects on the glutenin / gliadin and amylase / amylopectin ratios in the grains, compared to CK and WL. Yangmai 12 was more sensitive to ST than SW, while Huaimai 17 was in adverse. WL decreased the accumulation of protein and starch in the grains of the two cultivars. Except that the glutenin and albumin in Huaimai 17 had some increase, the globulin and gliadin in Huaimai 17 and all protein components in Yangmai 12 were decreased under WL.
    Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake
    2009, 20(10):  2399-2405. 
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    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grainfilling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i.e., 0.3 g N·kg-1 FM>0.2 g N·kg-1 FM>0.1 g N·kg-1 FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.
    Difference in seedlings ammonium assimilation of wheat cultivars with different drought resistance under osmotic stress
    2009, 20(10):  2406-2410. 
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    Taking wheat cultivars drought-resistant Luohan-6 and drought-sensitive Zhoumai-18 as test objects, their seedlings ammonium assimilation enzyme activities and related parameters were determined under osmotic stress. The plant biomass had an obvious decrease under osmotic stress, with a larger decrement for Zhoumai-18 than Luohan-6. Osmotic stress increased the plant ammonium content, especially for Zhoumai-18. The glutamine synthetase (GS) activity varied with wheat cultivars. For Luohan-6, the GS activity increased significantly under low osmotic stress but decreased under high osmotic stress; while for Zhoumai-18, the GS activity decreased with increasing osmotic stress. The NADH-dependent glut
    amate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) increased with increasing osmotic stress, with a marked increment under low osmotic stress for Zhoumai-18, and under high osmotic stress for Luohan-6. The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD+-GDH) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activities also increased with increasing osmotic stress, with a greater increment of NAD+-GDH activity for Zhoumai-18, and of NADP-ICDH activity for Luohan-6. It was suggested that the increased drought resistance of wheat plants could be related to the incre
    ased ammonium assimilation resulted from the enhanced GS and NADH-GDH activities under low and high osmotic stress, respectively.
    Splash erosion of black soil with different reclamation years and its relations to soil aggregates selective characteristics
    2009, 20(10):  2411-2416. 
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    Taking the typical black soil with a reclamation history of 8, 30, and 50 years and the un-reclaimed secondary forest land as test objects, a simulat
    ion study was made on the process of splash erosion and the selective characteristics of soil aggregates under artificial rainfall condition, with the effects of reclamation on the splash erosion in black soil region analyzed. The splash amount of reclaimed black soil was evidently higher than that of un-reclaimed secondary forest land, and increased with increasing reclamation years, with a variation range of 0.95-7.06 g·cm-1. There was a signific
    ant exponential correlation between splash amount and splash distance, and the percentages of small size water-stable aggregates increased with increasing splash distance. The critical particle size of soil aggregates for the enrichment and depletion of splash erosion was 1.0 mm. Soil waterstable aggregates larger than 2 mm and smaller than 0.25 mm in size and soil organic matter content were the main factors affecting the splash erosion characteristics of typical black soil.
    Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage
    2009, 20(10):  2417-2423. 
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    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those
    of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i.e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.
    Monitoring models for phosphorus content of apple flowers based on hyperspectrum
    2009, 20(10):  2424-2430. 
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    By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, the hyperspectral reflectance of apple flowers at full-blooming stage was measured under laboratory conditions, and the correlations of the hyperspectral reflectance with the phosphorus content of apple flowers were analyzed based on the original spectrum and the first derivative spectral characteristics of the flowers. The sensitive wavebands were determined, the characteristic spectral parameters were constructed, and the monitoring models for the phosphorus content of apple flowers were established accordingly. Correlation analysis showed that the phosphorus content of apple flowers was significantly positively correlated with the original spectral reflectance at 350-370 nm, 670-1385 nm, and 1620-1760 nm, and the first derivative reflectance at 500-520 nm, and significantly negatively correlated with the first
    derivative reflectance at 670-730 nm. The spectral parameters DVI (936,676), DVI (977,676), NDVI (936,676) and NDVI (977,676) had close correlations with the phosphorus content of apple flowers, the correlation coefficients being all >0.77. By using these spectral parameters as independent variables, four monitoring models for the phosphorus content of apple flowers were established, among which, the model with NDVI (936,676) as the variable was validated as the best monitoring model, its determination coefficient was the highest (R2=0.9385), root mean square error and relative error were the smallest (RMSE=0.6883, and RE=7.6%), and prediction accuracy reached 92.4%.
    Responses of primary photochemical reactions in apple fruit peel to the changes of incident PFD and air temperature in sunny days
    2009, 20(10):  2431-2436. 
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    Taking Malus domestica Borkh as test object, this paper studied the primary photochemical reactions and xanthophyll cycle in its fruit peel in respons
    e to the diurnal changes of incident photon flux density (PFD) and air temperature in sunny days. With the increase of PFD and air temperature in a daily cycle, a severe photo-inhibition of the primary photochemical reactions in M. domestica fruit peel occurred from 12:00 to 14:00. The relative variable fluorescence at 300 μs of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (Wk) did not change significantly through the day, which indicated that the activity of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was not damaged by strong light and high temperature. However, the efficiency that a trapped exciton moved an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA- (Ψo) was reduced from 12:00 to 14:00, indicating that the acceptor side of PSⅡ in apple fruit peel was damaged. Strong light decreased the density of PSⅡ reaction centers per excited crosssection (RC/CS), which induced the increase of the energy absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC). However, the excited energy was not able to be efficiently used via photochemical reaction (TRo/RC), resulting in an increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation per active reaction center (DIo/RC). Along with the appearance of photo
    inhibition, the de-epoxidation level of xanthophyll pigment pool (PRI) increased markedly, showing that the xanthophyll cycle in fruit peel was enhanced by strong light to dissipate excess excitation energy to prevent photosynthetic apparatus from further damage. Both strong light and high temperature enhanced the photoinhibition in apple fruit peel, and the effect of strong light was significantly more prominent than that of high temperature during a day.
    Effects of labor-saving rice cultivation modes on the diversity of potential weed communities in paddy fields
    2009, 20(10):  2437-2445. 
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    Aimed to understand the effects of various labor-saving rice cultivation modes on the diversity of potential weed communities in paddy fields, an inv
    estigation was made on the quantitative characteristics of the weed seed bank under dry direct seeding, water direct seeding, seedling throwing, mechanized-transplanting, wheat-rice interplanting, and conventional manual transplanting. Under dry direct seeding, the density of the weed seed bank was up to 228416 seeds·m-2, being significantly higher than that under the other five cultivation modes. Wheat-rice interplanting ranked the second place. The seed density of sedge weeds under dry direct seeding and that of broad leaf weeds under wheat-rice interplanting were significantly higher than the seed densities of various kinds of weeds under other cultivation modes. Conventional manual transplanting mode had the highest species richness, with Margalef index being 1.86. The diversity indices, including Shannon-Wiener index, Gini index, and Pielou evenness
    index under water direct seeding and wheatrice interplanting were higher than those under other cultivation modes. Comparing with conventional manual transpla
    nting mode, the other five cultivation modes had their own dominant species in t
    he potential weed community, and thereby, different laborsaving rice cultivati
    on modes should be applied by turns to control the potential weed community in p
    addy fields effectively and persistently.
    Spatiotemporal expansion of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City: An analysis based on remote sensing and GIS technology
    2009, 20(10):  2446-2454. 
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    By using 1985, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004 satellite images and GIS technology, three indices including built-up area density, expansion intensity inde
    x, and fractal dimension were chosen to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics, spatial differentiation, and morphological changes of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City in 1985-2004, with the main driving factors discussed. In the study period, the high-density area of urban built
    -up area in the City increased year by year, and that of rural built-up area changed slightly before 1997 but increased gradually thereafter. The increased area, expansion speed, and expansion intensity of built-up area were evidently greater in urban than in rural area. An obvious spatial differentiation was observed in the expansion of built-up area between urban and rural areas, with the high-speed expansion mainly concentrated in urban area. The fractal dimension in urban area increased gradually, which meant that the integrated configuration of urban area became more and more complex, while that in rural area changed irregularly, because of the lack of reasonable planning and construction. Economic development, population growth, transportation, natural environment, policy-guiding, and urban planning were the main driving forces of the expansion of built-up
    areas in Shenyang City.
    Spatial evaluation on ecological and aesthetic quality of Beijing agricultural landscape
    2009, 20(10):  2455-2460. 
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    A total of ten single indices mainly reflecting the ecological and aesthetic quality of agricultural landscape, including ecosystem function, naturaln
    ess, openness and diversity, contamination probability, and orderliness were selected, their different weights were given based on field survey and expert system, and an integrated evaluation index system of agricultural landscape quality was constructed. In the meantime, the land use data provided by GIS and the remote sensing data of vegetation index were used to evaluate the Beijing agricultural landscape quality and its spatial variation. There was a great spatial variation in the agricultural landscape quality of Beijing, being worse at the edges of urban area and towns, but better in suburbs. The agricultural landscape quality was mainly related to topography and human activity. To construct a large-scale integrated index system based on remote sensing data and landscape indices would have significance in evaluating the spatial variation of agricultural landscape quality.
    Profile distribution of sediment particle sizes at a check dam in a small watershed of Loess Plateau
    2009, 20(10):  2461-2467. 
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    Sediment gyration sampling was conducted in June 2006 to analyze the profile distribution of sediment particle sizes at a check-dam built in 1954 in
    a typical small watershed of hilly and gully Loess plateau. There were at least 28 layers of sediment gyration at the check-dam, with the layer depth varied from 2 cm to 60 cm. In the sediment profile, silt (0.05-0.002 mm) occupied >60%, its particle size being mainly within the range of 0.01-0.05 mm, while coarse sand (>0.05 mm) accounted for 23.09%. The variation degree of sediment particle sizes increased with increasing depth, an
    d an abrupt change was observed at the depth 2 m. Both longitudinal gradient and hydrodynamic condition caused the variation of sediment particle sizes. There was an accumulated plough layer of 72 cm thickness in the profile, which had indicative role for the sediment erosion environment of check dam.
    Chlorophyll-a concentration and phytoplankton size-fractionated composition in Jiaozhou Bay
    2009, 20(10):  2468-2474. 
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    An investigation was made on the chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration and phytoplankton size-fractionated composition in Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent waters in February, May, August, and November 2008. The average annual Chla concentrations inside and outside the Bay was 4.90 mg·m-3 and 2.03 mg·m-3, respectively. The Chla concentration presented a decreasing trend from the northeast and near-shore to the central, south, and outside of the Bay, and had an obvious double-peak seasonal variation, being higher in summer and winter. The phytoplankton in the Bay was dominated by nanophytoplankton, accounting for 60.9% of the total Chla concentration, followed by microphytoplankton, and picophytoplankton, which was consistent with the phytoplankton size-fractionated composition in coastal waters of China. Comparing with historical data, the proportion of nanophytoplankton in the Bay had some increase, while that of picophytoplankton decreased to some extent.
    Differential geometry expression and analysis of regionalized variables of typical pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment
    2009, 20(10):  2475-2480. 
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    Based on the basic concepts of differential geometry in analyzing environmental data and establishing related models, the methodology for differential
     geometry expression and analysis of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment was presented. As a kind of regionalized variables, the spatial distribution pattern of the pollutants concentration was transformed into 3-dimension form, and fitted with conicoid. This approach made it possible to analyze the quantitative relationships between the regionalized variables and their spatial structural attributes. For illustration purpose, several sorts of typical space fabrics, such as convexity, concavity, ridge, ravine, saddle, and slope, were calculated and characterized. It was suggested that this approach was feasible for analyzing the regionalized variables of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment.
    Effects of manganese on antioxidant system of manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana  L
    2009, 20(10):  2481-2486. 
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    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the growth, manganese (Mn) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 concentration, and antioxidant system of Phytolacca americana L. exposed to different concentration Mn. With increasing Mn concentration in the medium, the plant Mn content increased significantly, and the Mn accumulation was in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. Comparing with the control, low concentration (5 mmol·L-1) Mn promoted the plant growth, decreased the leaf H2O2 concentration, and had less effects on the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while high concentration (≥10 mmol·L-1) Mn led to a remarkable increase of leaf H2O2 and MDA contents, indicating an evident oxidative damage occurred in leaves. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase and the content of reduced ascorbate increased with increasing Mn concentration, while the SOD activity was inhibited significantly at 5 mmol·L-1 of Mn but enhanced at ≥10 mmol·L-1 of Mn. The activities of catalase and peroxidase and the content of reduced glutathione increased at 5-10 mmol·L-1 of Mn but dropped markedly at 20 mmol·L-1 of Mn. All the results suggested that the Mn-induced oxidative damage and Mn accumulation might be responsible for the growth inhibition of P. americana plants at high Mn exposure, and the increase of antioxidative enzyme activities and low molecular antioxidant contents was, at least partly, contributed to the Mn tolerance and hyperaccumulation of P. americana. However, due to their different Mn concentration-ependent change modes, these antioxidants played different roles in the Mn tolerance of P. americana.
    Nitrogen and phosphorus input from wet deposition in Taihu Lake region: A case study in Changshu Agro-ecological Experimental Station
    2009, 20(10):  2487-2492. 
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    From June 2003 to May 2004, the precipitation at Changshu Agro-ecological Station (31°32′45″ N, 120°41′57″ E) of Chinese Academy of Sciences was collected to monitor its particle- and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, with the seasonal variation of nitrogen and phosphorus in wet deposition in Taihu Lake region investigated. The nitrogen input from wet deposition had an obvious seasonal variation, being higher in summer and spring and lower in autumn and winter. The ratios of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and particle nitrogen (PN) to total nitrogen (TN) in wet deposition were 88.2% and 11.8%, and those of dissolved phosphorus (DP) and particle phosphorus (PP) to total phosphorus (TP) were 53.3% and 46.7%, respectively. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus deposited into Taihu Lake region by light and medium precipitation were higher than those by heavy precipitation. The annual input of TN and TP from wet deposition was 30.2 kg·hm-2 and 1.1 kg·hm-2, respectively, and the DN concentration in all precipitation events as well as the DP concentration in 92.5% of precipitation events was higher than the thresholds of inland water eutrophication.
    Relationships of Syzygium jambos and Dracontomelon duperreanum leaf tannin concentration and leaf litter breakdown with the colonization of benthonic invertebrates
    2009, 20(10):  2493-2498. 
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    An investigation was made on the dynamic changes of tannin concentration in Syzygium jambos and Dracontomelon duperreanum leaves over a 105-day period of leaf litter decomposition in a second-order stream in Longdong Reservoir, Guangzhou. The initial tannin concentration in S. jambos leaves (0.191 g·g-1 DM) was higher than that in D. duperreanum leaves (0.057 g·g-1 DM). In the first week of leaf litter decomposition, the tannin concentration in D. duperreanum and S. jambosleaves decreased by 45% and 22% respectively. 21 days after, the decline in tannin concentation slowed down, but the decomposition rate increased, with the leaves of D. duperreanum decomposed faster than those of S. jambos (k value was 0.038 d-1 and 0.013 d-1, respectively). The average density of benthonic invertebrate colonized on D. duperreanum leaves (287.9 ind·g-1 leaf mass) was significantly higher than that on S. jambos leaves (26.2 ind·g-1leaf mass) (P<0.05). A continual increase of benthonic invertebrate’s abundance was observed during leaf litter decomposition, which could be attributed to the rapid decrease of leaf tannin concentration. The slower breakdown of S. jambos leaf litter was likely because of the high tannin concentration in S. jambos leaves, which inhibited benthonic invertebrate, especially the shredder’s colonization. 
    Effects of suspended silts in waters on the growth and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Hydrilla verticillata
    2009, 20(10):  2499-2505. 
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    Silt particles smaller than 100 μm in diameter were used to make the waters with a turbidity of 30 NTU, 60 NTU, and 90 NTU. Hydrilla verticillata seedlings were planted in the turbid waters, and their branch length, branch number, and fresh mass were measured at definite periods of time. In the meanwhile, the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined in situ by a submersible pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer (Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany). With the increase of water turbidity, the branch number of the seedlings decreased remarkably, biomass also decreased, but branch length increased significantly. In turbid waters, the Fv/Fm value decreased with time, but was still higher than that in the control waters. Under the actinic light of 17 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD, the effective quantum yield (△Fv′/Fm′) of seedling leaves on the 60th day in the waters with turbidity of 30 NTU, 60 NTU, and 90 NTU increased by 48.9%, 36.8%, and 17.2% (P<0.01), and the relative electron transport rate (rETR) increased by 56.7%, 42.2%, and 21.4% (P<0.01), respectively, compared with those on the 30th day. However, under the actinic light of 104 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD, the △Fv′/Fm′,qP, and rETR on the 60th day decreased significantly, and the heat dissipation capability (qN) also reduced evidently. All the results suggested that the H. verticillata seedlings in turbid waters could adapt to low light environment, but their leaves were easy to be damaged under high light intensity. Therefore, it would be possible to introduce H. verticillata seedlings in shallow turbid waters.
    Effects of typhoon ‘Haitang&rsquo|airflow field on the northward migration route of rice brown planthopper
    2009, 20(10):  2506-2512. 
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    Based on GIS, GrADS, and HYSPLIT-4.8 model, this paper analyzed the daily light- trap catches of rice brown planthopper at 42 pest monitoring stations of 10 provinces in China, the wind field on 850 hPa isobaric surface, and the migration tracks of rice brown planthopper at 20 pest monitoring stations during the occurrence of 0505 typhoon ‘Haitang’ from 19th to 21st July, 2005. After its landing on China, the typhoon ‘Haitang’ changed the southwest air flow, a flow which leads the northward migration of rice brown planthopper, and made the wind field converge in the southwest of the typhoon and swerve in larger areas. Accordingly, the northward migration of the rice brown planthopper was stopped, and the airborne populations were forced to descend in some areas. The shear line area nearby 850 hPa isobaric surface was the concentration and deposition area of the rice brown planthopper. There would be a mass migration area in the warm airflow shear area in the southeast of typhoon during the collapse of the typhoon. After the whole typhoon landed, the southwest airflow rebuilt, and a mass rice brown planthopper migrated to the north.
    Foraging intensity of ants in Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formiciddae) invaded and un-nvaded habitats
    2009, 20(10):  2513-2518. 
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    By the methods of bait (honey, peanut oil, sausage, and mealworm larvae) trap, this paper studied the searching time, recruitment time, and recruitment number of ants in 3 typical habitats invaded and un-nvaded by red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) in South China, and analyzed the effects of S. invicta invasion on the foraging intensity of native ants. In S. invicta invaded lawn, the searching time of ants for mealworm larvae and peanut oil was significantly shorter, compared with that in S. invicta un-nvaded area. Less difference was observed in the searching time for the 4 baits between S. invicta invaded and un-nvaded wasteland, but the recruitment time for peanut oil was significantly longer in invaded than in un-nvaded area. The searching time and recruitment time of the ants for the 4 baits had less difference between the invaded and un-nvaded litchi orchard. 30 min after setting bait traps, the recruitment number of S. invicta workers on peanut oil, mealworm larvae, and sausage in invaded lawn, and on peanut oil in invaded wasteland was larger than that of native ants, but no significant difference was found in the recruitment number of S. invicta
     workers and native ants on the baits in invaded litchi orchard.
    Spatiotemporal changes of fish community in Yangtze estuary intertidal zone
    2009, 20(10):  2519-2526. 
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    Based on the 36 fish samplings at 4 stations in the intertidal zone of Yangtze estuary from March to November 2006, the spatial and temporal changes of the fish community were analyzed. A total of 55 fish species belonging to 20 families were collected. Cyprinid had the largest species number (18 species), followed by Gobiidae (8 species), and Sciaenidae (4 species). The intertidal fish community was classified into brackish water and freshwater groups. Brackish water group had somewhat lower diversity than freshwater group. In the estuary mouth, the dominant species were of brackish-water fishes, including Acanthogobius ommaturus, Mugil cephalus and Collichthys lucidus, etc.; in the inner estuary, freshwater fishes were dominant, including Hemiculter bleeleri, Pseudobrama simony, and Parabramis pekinensis. The average dissimilarity between the two groups reached 80.75%, and the accumulative contribution of 23 fish species was more than 90%, mainly coming from Hemiculter bleeleri, Acanthogobius ommaturus, Mugil cephalus, Collichthys lucidus, Pseudobrama simony, Parabramis pekinensis, Saurogobio dumerili, and Odontamblyopus rubicundus. The abundance of fish assemblages in spring differed from that in summer and autumn to certain extent, but the abundance in summer and autumn had little differences. For each of the two groups, the abundance was more affected by water temperature than by water salinity; for the whole fish community, opposite situation was observed
    .
    Structural characteristics of crab communities in offshore waters of mid-southern East China Sea
    2009, 20(10):  2527-2534. 
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    The crab resources in the offshore waters of midsouthern East China Sea (26°00′–28°30′ N, 121°00′–126°00′ E) were investigated in May (spr
    ing), August (summer), November (autumn) 2006 and February (winter) 2007, with the characteristics of their community structure, including species composition, index of relative importance (IRI), diversity, and biomass analyzed. A total of 49 species were identified, belonging to 30 genera and 12 families. In both spring and autumn, the crab species number was higher in northern  than in southern part of the Sea; in summer, it had a relatively uniform distribution; while in winter, less difference was observed between the southern and northern parts of the Sea, and the crabs were mainly concentrated in the exterior areas. A total of 13 dominant species (IRI>1000) with Charybdis bimaculata, Calappa lophos, Charybdis miles, Ovalipes punctatus, Carcinoplax longimana, Charybdis riversandersoni, and Portunus argentatus as the representatives appeared all the year round. The diversity index of the crabs was lower in summer, but had no significant difference among the other three seasons. The catching mass of the crabs in the investigated sea area was averagely 5197.62 g·h-1, being 8830.79 g·h-1 in summer>4877.50 g·h-1 in spring > 4268.30 g·h-1 in autumn > 2813.87 g·h-1 in winter. The crabs in the offshore waters of mid-southern East China Sea could be categorized as 3 ecological communities, i.e., eurythermal and eurysaline, hyperthermal and eurysaline, and hyperthermal and hysaline.
    Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary
    2009, 20(10):  2535-2544. 
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    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of <40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg·km-2, with the highest (198.93 kg·km-2) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg·km-2) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg·km-2), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg·km-2), and squills (18.88 kg·km-2). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg·km-2) in summer and the lowest density (0
    .67 kg·km-2) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest density (62.01 and 29.49 kg·km-2, respectively) in winter and the lowest density (24.64 and 6.30 kg·km-2, respectively) in autumn.
    Effects of sea water temperature and salinity on the growth and survival of juvenile Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus
    2009, 20(10):  2545-2550. 
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    A laboratory test was conducted to study the effects of different sea water temperature (17 grads) and salinity (19 grads) on the growth and survival
    of juvenile Meretrix meretrix. The suitable and optimum sea water salinities for the survival of juvenile M. meretrix were 6.5-39.5 and 9.0-31.0, and those for the juvenile growth were 7.3-38.7 and 15.0-23.0, respectively. The suitable sea water temperature for the survival of the juveniles was 4.0 ℃-36.1 ℃; the suitable temperature for the growth was 7.0 ℃-35.4 ℃, more suitable temperature was 17 ℃-33.5 ℃, and the optimum growth t
    emperature was 24 ℃-27 ℃. Juvenile M. meretrix had stronger adaptability to high sea water temperature and low sea water salinity.
    Effects of antibiotics on bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system
    2009, 20(10):  2551-2557. 
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    With bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) as molecular marker and by using PCR-DGGE technique, the fingerprints of bacterial community were constructed to study the effects of applying streptomycin sulfate, terramycin, and penicillin on the bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system. Within the 120 h experimental period, significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between the treatments applied with 0.5 mg·L-1 of test antibiotics and the control. In the control, the band patterns in 0-30 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 56-120 h were clustered into another; while in the treatments applied with test antibiotics, the band patterns in 0-56 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 72-120h were clustered into another. After the sequencing of DGGE bands, the BLAST-N searches for sequence similarity showed great diversity of bacterial species, including culturable bacteria (mainly Sulfitobacter sp., Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae,Synechoccoccus sp., Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Filamentous photosynthetic, Mucus, and Vibrio harveyi) and some uncultured marine bacteria, among which, Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Mucus, and two unculturable bacteria were less affected by the three antibiotics, while Sulfitobacter sp., Filamentous photosynthetic, and other eight unculturable marine bacteria changed in different ptiotemporal patterns with the kinds of test antibiotics.
    Allelopathic effect of Corallina pilulifera on Heterosigma akashiwo and its responses to UV-B irradiation
    2009, 20(10):  2558-2562. 
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    By the method of co-culture and using cell density as the main indicator, this paper studied the allelopathic effect of Corallina pilulifera on
    Heterosigma akashiwo and its responses to UV-B irradiation. Under normal condition, the fresh tissue and aqueous extracts of C. pilulifera had significant inhibitory effects on the growth of H. akashiwo (P<0.05), indicating their allopathic effect on H. akashiwo, while the dry power and culture media filtrate of C. pilulifera had less effect (P>0.05). After pre-treated with different dose UV-B radiation and then co-cultured with H. akashiwo, C. pilulifera had some changes in the allelopathic activity of its fresh tissue, dry powder, and aqueous extracts. High-dose UV-B radiation (3.0 J·m-2) induced the decrease of the allelopathic effect, whereas low-dose UV-B radiation (0.9 J·m-2) was in adverse (P<0.05).
    Inhibitory effects of Spartina anglica on Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocenrum micans and the isolation and identification of the algicidal compounds
    2009, 20(10):  2563-2568. 
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    Taking Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocenrum micans as test materials, the algicidal activity of Spartina anglica against the growth of the two har
    mful microalgae were investigated, with the algicidal compounds isolated and identified. Lower concentration S. anglica stimulated the growth of H. akashiwo, while high concentration S. anglica inhibited the H. akashiwo growth significantly. The lethal concentration of S. anglicafresh tissue, dry p
    owder, and extracts to H. akashiwowas 4.8 mg·ml-1, 0.8 mg·ml-1, and 0.5 mg·ml-1, respectively. All test concentration S. anglica had obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of P. micans, and the lethal concentration of S. anglica fresh material, dry powder, and extracts was 9.6 mg·ml-1, 1.6 mg·ml-1, and 1.25 mg·ml-1, respectively. Two algicidal compounds in S. anglicawere isolated, and identified as isohamnetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside and syringetin-3-O-galactoside.
    Blood biochemical indices of female red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China
    2009, 20(10):  2569-2573. 
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    From November 2004 to October 2005, twenty blood biochemical indices, i.e., total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, blood glucose, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatine kinase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum calcium ion, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium ion, of 10 femaleGrus japonensis adults in their wintering, reproduction, and migration periods in Zhalong Nature Reserve were analyzed by automatic biochemical analyzer. Significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) were observed in the test indices except serum total protein, serum globulin, and blood glucose among the three life periods, which suggested that the serum total protein, serum globulin, and blood glucose could be used as the reliable references of blood biochemical indices of female G. japonensis, while the yearround dynamics of the other 17 indices reflected the physiological characteristics and ecological adaptability of female G. japonensis in its different  periods in one year. When using these 17 indices as the references of the blood biochemical indices of female G.  japonensis, the physiological period should be considered.
    Sediment quality criteria for organic pollutants based on phase-equilibrium partitioning approach: A review
    2009, 20(10):  2574-2580. 
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    Sediment quality criteria (SQC) are the supplement of current water quality criteria, being of significance in water quality management. In China, the
     research on SQC started late, and was mainly focused on heavy metals, paying less attention to organic pollutants. Phaseequilibrium partitioning approach (EqP) is a useful approach which can be used to derive sediment quality criteria fo organic pollutants. In this paper, the basic principles of EqP and its applications for SQC of organic pollutants were introduced, and the impact of irreversible adsorption as well as the modification of EqP was discussed. Some problems of the present EqP and the research prospects were put forward.