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应用生态学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 527-536.doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202201.035

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北京昌平区景观复杂度和局地管理对苹果园传粉蜂多样性的影响

王美娜1, 王子睿1, 宇振荣1,3, 徐环李2, 刘云慧1,3*   

  1. 1中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193;
    2中国农业大学植物保护学院, 北京 100193;
    3中国农业大学生物多样性与有机农业北京市重点实验室, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-30 修回日期:2021-10-28 出版日期:2022-02-15 发布日期:2022-03-01
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: liuyh@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王美娜, 女, 1992年生, 博士研究生。主要从事景观生态和生物多样性研究。E-mail: mnwang_eco@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871186)资助。

Effects of landscape complexity and local management on bee pollinator diversity in apple orchards in Changping District, Beijing, China.

WANG Mei-na1, WANG Zi-rui1, YU Zhen-rong1,3, XU Huan-li2, LIU Yun-hui1,3*   

  1. 1College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
    2College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
    3Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2021-03-30 Revised:2021-10-28 Online:2022-02-15 Published:2022-03-01

摘要: 传粉蜂为作物生产和粮食安全提供重要的生态系统服务。随着农业经济的不断发展,土地利用强度加剧,大量自然或半自然生境已经转变为农业用地。景观均质化和集约化管理导致野生蜂多样性下降,从而威胁到农业可持续生产。本研究以北京市昌平区苹果园为对象,探究景观复杂度(半自然生境比例)、局地管理强度(地表开花植物多样性和土壤全氮)及其交互作用对传粉蜂多样性的影响。结果表明: 共捕获传粉蜂8642头,其中人工蜂5125头,野生蜂分属5科14属49种3517头。传粉蜂多样性对景观复杂度和局地管理强度响应的最优尺度在500 m。样点半径500 m范围内,总传粉蜂和野生蜂多度随周围半自然生境增加均呈显著上升趋势。景观复杂度与开花植物多样性的交互作用对总传粉蜂和野生蜂物种丰富度有显著影响。当景观复杂度较低时(≤29.9%),总传粉蜂和野生蜂物种丰富度与开花植物多样性呈显著正相关;而当景观复杂度较高时(>29.9%),总传粉蜂和野生蜂物种丰富度与开花植物多样性呈显著负相关。此外,人工蜂多度随果园内局地开花植物多样性和土壤全氮增加呈显著升高趋势。土壤全氮与开花植物多样性的交互作用对人工蜂多度有显著影响。当土壤全氮含量较低时(≤1.9 g·kg-1),人工蜂多度与开花植物多样性呈显著正相关;而当土壤全氮含量较高时(>1.9 g·kg-1),人工蜂多度与开花植物多样性呈显著负相关。农业景观中半自然生境比例的增加有利于提高野生蜂多度,而地表开花植物多样性可以促进传粉蜂多样性,但是受到景观尺度(半自然生境比例)和局地尺度(氮肥施用)的影响。因此,农业景观中野生蜂多样性的维持需要综合考虑多尺度因素来制定保护策略。尽可能保留更高比例的耕地仍然是生产的长期需求,而保持中等景观复杂度,增加地表开花植物多样性,减少氮肥施用量将是促进苹果园传粉蜂多样性的有效方式。

关键词: 农业景观, 土壤全氮, 开花植物多样性, 野生蜂多样性, 人工蜂多度

Abstract: Pollinators provide important ecosystem services for crop production and food security. With the development of agricultural economy and the increasing intensity of land-use, a large number of natural or semi-natural habitats have been converted to croplands. Landscape homogenization and intensive management lead to the decline of wild bee diversity and threaten the sustainable agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of landscape complexity (proportion of semi-natural habitats), local management practices (local flowering plant diversity and soil total nitrogen), and their interactions on diversity of bee pollinators in apple orchard in Changping District, Beijing. A total of 8642 bee individuals were captured, including 5125 honey bees and 3517 wild bees from 5 families, 14 genera, and 49 species. The optimal landscape scale for the response of bee diversity to landscape complexity and local management intensity was 500 m. Within 500 m radius of the site, the abundance of overall bees and wild bees significantly increased with increasing proportion of semi-natural habitats. The landscape complexity interacting with local flowering plant diversity significantly affected the richness of overall bee and wild bee. When the proportion of semi-natural habitats surrounding the apple orchards was low (≤29.9%), we found a positive effect of flowering plant diversity on the richness of overall bee and wild bee, whereas a reversed trend was found when the proportion of semi-natural habitats surrounding the apple orchards was high (>29.9%). In addition, the abundance of honey bees significantly increased with the increase of local flowering plant diversity and soil total nitrogen. The soil total nitrogen interacting with local flowering plant diversity significantly affected the honey bee abundance. At low levels of soil total nitrogen (≤1.9 g·kg-1), there was a positive effect of flowering plant diversity on honey bee abundance; whereas this trend was reversed at high levels of soil total nitrogen (>1.9 g·kg-1). Increasing the proportion of semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscape was beneficial to the increase of wild bee abundance, and flowering plant diversity could promote bee diversity but depending on landscape scale (proportion of semi-natural habitats) and local scale (nitrogen application). Therefore, multi-scale factors should be considered to develop conservation strategies to maintain the diversity of wild bees in agricultural landscape. Maintaining a higher proportion of cultivated land as much as possible is still a long-term requirement for production, while maintaining intermediate landscape complexity, increasing the diversity of flowering plants on the ground, and reducing the application of nitrogen fertilizer would be effective ways to promote the diversity of pollinating bees in apple orchards.

Key words: agricultural landscape, soil total nitrogen, flowering plant diversity, wild bee diversity, honey bee abundance