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Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology ›› 2024, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (3): 817-826.doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202403.029

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Preliminary investigation on the causes of red tides in Qinhuangdao coastal areas in 2022

XU Jintao, YAO Yuan, YANG Wen, WANG Zhong, LI Xinyang, TAN Faqi, LI Weiwei, MA Jicheng, MA Xin*   

  1. Marine Environment Monitoring Central Station of Qinhuangdao, State Oceanic Administration, Qinhuangdao 066002, Hebei, China
  • Received:2023-07-17 Revised:2024-01-22 Online:2024-03-18 Published:2024-06-18

Abstract: To explore the causes of red tides in Qinhuangdao coastal water, we conducted surveys on both water quality and red tides during April to September of 2022 and analyzed the relationships between main environmental factors and red tide organisms through the factor analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that there were eight red tides along the coast of Qinhuangdao in 2022, with a cumulative blooming area of 716.1 km2. The red tides could be divided into three kinds based on the major blooming organisms and occurrence time, Noctiluca scintillans bloom, diatom-euglena (Skeletonema costatum, Eutreptiella gymnastica, Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) bloom, and dinoflagellate (Scrippsiella trochoidea and Ceratium furca) bloom. Seasonal factor played roles mainly during July to September, while inorganic nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus influenced the blooms mainly in April and July. The canonical correspondence analysis suggested that N. scintillans preferred low temperature, and often bloomed with high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and dissolved inorganic phosphorus. S. costatum, E. gymnastica, and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. could tolerate broad ranges of various environmental factors, but favored high temperature and nitrogen-rich seawater. C. furca and S. trochoidea had higher survival rate and competitiveness in phosphate-poor waters. Combined the results from both analyses, we concluded that the causes for the three kinds of red tide processes in Qinhuangdao coastal areas in 2022 were different. Adequate diet algae and appropriate water temperature were important factors triggering and maintaining the N. scintillans bloom. Suitable temperature, salinity and eutrophication were the main reasons for the diatom-euglena bloom. The abundant nutrients and seawater disturbance promoted the germination of S. trochoidea cysts, while phosphorus limitation caused the blooming organism switched to C. furca and maintained the bloom hereafter.

Key words: Qinhuangdao, red tide, factor analysis, canonical correspondence analysis, phosphorus limitation