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    Ecological function and application of toxin β-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus).
    XIONG Jun-lan, BAI Xue, BATOOL Asfa, KONG Hai-yan, TAN Rui-yue, WANG Ya-fu, LI Zhi-xiao, XIONG You-cai
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Multiple functions-targeted algorithms and potential applications of Forest Simulation Optimization System (FSOS).
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2011, 22 (11): 3067-3072.  
    Abstract7936)      PDF(pc) (557KB)(1090)       Save
    Forest Simulation and Optimization System (FSOS) model has been widely used in British Columbia of Canada and in Changbai Mountains of China. This model is based on the viewpoint of harmonized and balanced management of forest resources and the application of simulated annealing optimized algorithms in arranging forest management schemes, aimed to realize the sustainable and harmonized development of forest resources multiple objective management and to transform forests to their desired status. The multiple functions (or the multiple objectives) in the FSOS model include water storage and purification, carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat protection, biodiversity conservation, visual landscape quality, and timber production, and the desired forest status is comprehensively defined by experts, environmental organizations, and government policies. This paper introduced in detail the simulated annealing algorithms in FSOS, including solution representation, evaluation, and transitions,and the potential applications of the algorithms in forest ecosystem planning, aimed to provide helps to the planning and management of forest resources and to the governments to quantify, analyze, and manage the forest resources, effectively monitor forest operations, and achieve the sustainable development of forest ecosystem.
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    Action mechanisms of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): A review.
    KANG Yi-Jun, CHENG Ji, MEI Li-Juan, HU Jian, PIAO Zhe, YAN Shi-Hua
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2010, 21 (01): 232-238.  
    Abstract6686)      PDF(pc) (304KB)(2477)       Save
    Plants during their growth may suffer from many biotic and abiotic stresses, resulting in a decrease of biological production. They may also establish some mechanisms to resist or tolerate the stresses under the stimulation or induction by a variety of factors, among which, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an important one. In this paper, the recently published papers related to this subject were reviewed, and two categories of the action mechanisms of PGPR, namely, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and induced systemic tolerance (IST), were elaborated. The diversity of the action mechanisms of PGPR implied that PGPR could be applied in more agro-ecosystems.
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    Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2010, 21 (07): 1772-1778.  
    Abstract6469)      PDF(pc) (573KB)(1057)       Save
    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of “anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil” at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a-1) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a-1) > granite red soil (0.006 a-1). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.
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    Photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Pleioblastus kongosanensis f. aureostriaus under drought stress.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2011, 22 (06): 1395-1402.  
    Abstract6341)      PDF(pc) (2831KB)(1148)       Save
    A pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of Pleioblastus kongosanensis f. aureostriaus plant morphology, leaf water content (LWC), leaf
    water potential (LWP), photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and soil water content (SWC) under natural drought stress, as well as the relationships between these variations and environmental factors. On the 17th day under the stress, the P. kongosanensis presented damaged symptom. Its leaves dehydrated, drooped, and wrap-formed. On the 43rd day, the aboveground part of the plant died from dehydration. When the plant was re-watered for 10 days, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters had no significant differences with those on the 43rd day under the stress. The SWC decreased significantly in 0-21 d of the stress, and the LWP and LWC dropped rapidly and significantly after 17 d and 29 d, respectively. With the increase of drought stress, the leaf transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) had a persistent decline, photosynthetic rate (Pn) had a greater fluctuation, and instantaneous water use efficiency (PWUE) decreased after an initial increase. After 17 d drought stress, the limiting factor of Pn was from stomatal to non-stomatal, and the actual photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) declined significantly; after 25 d, the photosynthetic organ was damaged, and the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) changed significantly from 0.64 to -0.11 and from 0.79 to 0.33, respectively. The Tr,gs, and PWUE had close correlations with LWP; the Pn, Tr, and gs were sensitive to air relative humidity (RH); and the gs was the main factor causing the diurnal variations of photosynthetic parameters. It was suggested that P. kongosanensis could grow well on the soil with relative moisture content ≥12% and drought duration less than 25 d. 
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    A new mathematical model of interspecific competition: an expansion of Lotka-Volterra competition equations
    Sun Guowei, Cui Qiwu
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    1990, 1 (1): 31-39.  
    Abstract5836)      PDF(pc) (645KB)(848)       Save
    The classical Lotka-Volterra competition equations are the direct extension of the classical Logistic equation of single population growth. Because they have no necessary theoretical basis and oversimplify the process of interspecific competition, it is not suitable for Lotka Volterra competition equations to be a general theoretical model of interspecific competition. Based upon the theory of nutrition kinetics, a new kind of competition model is constructed as follows: dX1/dt=μc1*X1 * 1-(X1+a12X2)/Xm1*/1-(X1+a12X2)/Xm1 dX2/dt=μc2*X2 * 1-(X2+a21X1)/Xm2*/1-(X2+a21X1)/Xm2 They are the extension of Cui-Lawson model of single population growth which is as follows: dX/dt=μc*X * 1-X/Xm*/1-X/Xm The new competition model has more complex and extensive behaviours than Lotka Volterra competition equations, and under specific condition, it turns into Lotka-Volterra competition equations. Therefore, the new competition equations are more general, and are the expansion of classical Lotka-Volterra competition equations.
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    What is sustainability science?
    WU Jian-guo1,2,3, GUO Xiao-chuan1, YANG Jie1, QIAN Gui-xia1, NIU Jian-ming1, LIANG Cun-zhu1, ZHANG Qing1, LI Ang4
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Comparison of GIMMS and MODIS normalized vegetation index composite data for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
    DU Jia-qiang1,2,3, SHU Jian-min1,2,3, WANG Yue-hui1,4, LI Ying-chang1,4, ZHANG Lin-bo1,2,3, GUO Yang1,2,3
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Effects of different fertilization regimes on abundance and community structure of the nirKtype denitrifying bacteria in greenhouse vegetable soils.
    ZENG Xi-bai1, WANG Ya-nan1, WANG Yu-zhong2, BAI Ling-yu1, LI Lian-fang1, DUAN Ran1, SU Shi-ming1, WU Cui-xia1
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Allelopathy of garlic root exudates.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2011, 22 (05): 1368-1372.  
    Abstract5207)      PDF(pc) (445KB)(1019)       Save
    By the method of water culture, the root exudates of Cangshan garlic and Caijiapo garlic were collected to study their allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, and on the development of pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and F. oxysporium f.sp. niveum. The root exudates of the two garlic cultivars promoted the lettuce seed germination and seedling growth at low concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 g·mL-1), but showed inhibitory effects at high concentrations (0.4 and 0.6 g·mL-1), with the inhibitory effects being stronger for the root exudates of Caijiapo garlic. The two garlic cultivars’ root exudates also had inhibitory effects on the mycelia growth and spore germination of the pathogens, and the effects increased with increasing concentration of the exudates, being stronger for Caijiapo garlic than for Cangshan garlic. F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the root exudates of the two garlic cultivars, as compared to F. oxysporium f.sp. niveum.
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    Leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Ulmz us pumila-Robinia pseudocacia  mixed forests.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2010, 21 (09): 2228-2234.  
    Abstract4994)      PDF(pc) (685KB)(644)       Save
    A field experiment was conducted to study the leaf N, P, and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in pure Ulmus pumila orest, pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest, and U. pumila-R. pseudoacacia mixed forests [1:1 (1B1C), 1:2 (1B2C), and 2:1 (2B1C)] in different growth periods. From May to September, the plant leaf N and P contents in pure and mixed forests all presented a decreasing trend. By the end of growth period, the leaf N content of U. pumila and the P content of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C were obviously higher than those in pure forests. In the mixed forests, the chlorophyll content of U. pumila was obviously higher than that of  R. pseudoacacia, and the chlorophyll content of U. pumila in 1B2C reached the highest in July. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) of  U. pumila  and R. pseudoacacia  in mixed forests was higher than that in pure forests, and the Pn of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C reached the highest (18.54 μmol·m-2·s-1) in July. The transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of R. pseudoacaciam  in mixed forests were higher than those in pure forests, and the Tr and Gs in mixed forests were in the order of 1B2C>1B1C>2B1C. In September, the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ФPSⅡ) of U. pumila  in mixed forests was obviously higher than that in pure forest. The photochemical quenching coefficients (qP) of U. pumila and  R. pseudoacacia  in pure and mixed forests had no significant difference, but the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of the two tree species in 1B2C was significantly lower than that in corresponding pure forests. It was suggested that mixed planting  U. pumila  and R. pseudoacacia  could significantly improve the leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic capacity of the two tree species, and the optimum mixed ratio of  U. pumila and  R. pseudoacacia was 1: 2.
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    Effects of biochar on soil nitrogen cycle and related mechanisms: A review.
    PAN Yi-fan, YANG Min, DONG Da, WU Wei-xiang
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Effects of aquatic plants during their decay and decomposition on water quality.
    TANG Jin-yan, CAO Pei-pei, XU Chi, LIU Mao-song
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Theory and methodology of spatial heterogeneity quantification
    Li Habin, Wang Zhengquan, Wang Qingcheng
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    1998, 9 (6): 651-657.  
    Abstract4811)      PDF(pc) (920KB)(822)       Save
    In this paper, semivariogram was used to quantify the spatial heterogeneity in landscape.It was suggested that spatial characteristics and spatial comparison were the main aspects of spatial heterogeneity quantification.For spatial characteristics, the authors emphatically discussed how to use semivariogram to decompose spatial heterogeneity into quantifiable components, to determine the degrees of spatial heterogeneity, and to detect the scale at which spatial heterogeneity changes.For spatial comparison, the authors expounded how to statistically test the parameters of semivariograms to compare the spatial heterogeneity between same variable at two sites or different variables at same site, and put forward the standardized semivariograms to compare the spatial heterogeneity with different variables at the same site.The introduced theory and methodology were examined by the example of spatial heterogeneity of forest types and soil types in landscape of broadleaf Korean pine forests.
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    Degradation pathways and main degradation products of tetracycline antibiotics: Research progress.
    LI Wei-ming, BAO Yan-yu, ZHOU Qi-xing
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2012, 23 (08): 2300-2308.  
    Abstract4655)      PDF(pc) (573KB)(1274)       Save
    Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) can produce a series of abiotic degradation reactions in the process of production and storage, and some of the degradation products have lower antibacterial activity but higher toxicity, as compared to the parent antibiotics. TCs can enter the environment via the disposal of livestock and poultry wastes, and then degrade in one or more ways according to the external conditions. Besides abiotic degradation, bio-degradation also happens. This paper reviewed the degradation pathways and main degradation products of TCs in different ecological environments, and discussed the future research directions, aimed to provide valuable reference for the ecological risk assessment of the antibiotics.
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    Effects of biochars produced from different sources on arsenic adsorption and desorption in soil.
    GUAN Lian-zhu, ZHOU Jing-jing, ZHANG Yun, ZHANG Guang-cai, ZHANG Jin-hai, CHAN Zhong-xiang
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Ecosystem services and their economic valuation
    Ouyang Zhiyun, Wang Rusong, Zhao Jingzhu
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    1999, 10 (5): 635-640.  
    Abstract4553)      PDF(pc) (638KB)(2905)       Save
    Ecosystem services imply the natural environmental conditions and their effectiveness formed and sustained by ecosystems and ecological processes, on which, human life relies for existence. They not only supply human with the production of ecosystem goods, such as food, forage, timber, fuel, natural fiber and pharmaceuticals, but also perform fundamental life support services, which include the purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, regulation of climate, regeneration of soil fertility, production and maintenance of biodiversity, and mitigation of floods, droughts, and wind and water erosions. It is recognized that ecosystem services are essential to civilization. In recent years, people pay more and more attentions on the research of ecosystem services, and ecologists and economists discuss in succession the connotations and the valuation methods of ecosystem services, which have become the frontier's topics in ecology and ecological economics. In this paper, the research advances and tendencies in ecosystem services, their economic valuation and their relations to sustainable development are literaturally surveyed and discussed.
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    Effects of biochar on microbial ecology in agriculture soil: A review.
    DING Yan-li, LIU Jie, WANG Ying-ying
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Structure and function of arbuscular mycorrhiza: A review.
    TIAN Mi1, CHEN Ying-long2, LI Min1, LIU Run-jin1
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology