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应用生态学报 ›› 2003, Vol. ›› Issue (11): 1955-1958.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

哈尔滨市瞬时热力场空间格局分析

祝宁1, 王成2, 周洪泽1, 李敏1   

  1. 1. 东北林业大学, 哈尔滨 150040;
    2. 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-15 修回日期:2003-07-04
  • 通讯作者: 祝宁,男,1935年生,教授,从事森林生态与城市林业研究.发表论文80余篇.
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技攻关计划重大专项资助项目(2002BA516A1501)

Analysis on instantaneous spatial pattern of thermal force field in Harbin

ZHU Ning1, WANG Cheng2, ZHOU Hongze1, LI Min1   

  1. 1. Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China;
    2. Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
  • Received:2002-03-15 Revised:2003-07-04

摘要: 应用遥感(TM图象)及地理信息系统(Arc View)技术,对哈尔滨市瞬时热力场空间格局现状进行多角度分析.将TM成像时哈尔滨市不同地表辐射温度地块分为3个温度等级:相对低辐射温度(<10℃)、相对中等辐射温度(10~22℃)和相对高辐射温度(22~31℃)地块.其中相对高辐射温度的地块数量最多,占61%;相对低辐射温度地块最少,仅占17%;相对中等辐射温度地块居中,占22%.在相对高辐射温度地块(22~31℃)中,大于28℃的相对过热辐射温度的地块为7018块,总面积达12252hm2,且大小不均,最大斑块面积是1489hm2,最小斑块面积为0.72hm2.在这些斑块中面积小于1hm2的占95.02%,1~5hm2占3.46%,而大于5hm2的占1.52%.它们以热团、热环及碎片的形式分布,形成分布格局.团状复合体内平均辐射温度为30.8℃,它们主要出现在哈尔滨市的道外区、道里区西南部.热环复合体的平均辐射温度为27℃,它们沿哈尔滨市现存的两条铁路环线构成过高热辐射环带.碎片复合体内的平均辐射温度为24.7℃,以小于1hm2的过高热辐射地块构成碎片形状,分布在南岗区和动力区.还分析了覆盖率、绿地面积及建筑容积因素与城市热力场空间格局的关系,提出了改善哈尔滨城市热岛.

关键词: 地理信息系统, 热力场, 绿地覆盖率, 建筑容积

Abstract: The spatial pattern of urban thermal force field is not only the dominant content in assessing city ecological environment, but also an important base for city green system planning. The status of spatial pattern of thermal force field in Harbin was analyzed with RSand GIStechniques. Based on the instantaneous radiation temperature of the land surfaces in the city when the TMimage was sensed remotely, all the patches were divided into 3 levels, i.e., low radiation temperature (<10℃), middle radiation temperature (10~22℃), and high radiation temperature of the land surfaces (22~31℃). The patches with high radiation temperature accounted for 61%, those with low radiation temperature accounted for 17%, and those with middle radiation temperature accounted for 22%. 7018 patches (12252 hm2 in total) with super-thermal radiation (>28℃) were uneven in their areas. The biggest area in these patches was 1489 hm2, and the smallest one was 0.72 hm2. The proportion of the patches with an area less than1 hm2, between1~5 hm2, and more than5 hm2 was 95.02%, 3.46%, and 1.58 %, respectively. There were 3 types of spatial patterns of the super-thermal radiation patches, i.e., round form (the average radiation temperature was 30.8℃), ring form (the average radiation temperature was 27℃), and pieces form (the average radiation temperature was 24.7℃). Daowai District and Daoli District were round form, districts along the ring routes of railway in the city were ring form, and Nangang District and Dongli District were pieces form. Some advices to resolve the problem of ‘heat island effect' influenced by the factors including greenland covering rate, greenland area and building dimension were discussed.

Key words: GIS, Thermal force field, Greenland coverage, Building dimension

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