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    Discussion on the scientific concept of ecology and its evolution and the contemporary ecologi-cal discipline system
    YU Gui-rui, WANG Qiu-feng, YANG Meng, CHEN Zhi
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202101.040
    Abstract386)      PDF(pc) (4937KB)(25)       Save
    Ecology is not only a branch of biology, but also an important part of environmental science and earth system science. The results of ecological studies can be directly applied in biodiversity conservation of plant, animal and microbe, biological resource utilization and biological industry management, and other fields. The concept of ecosystem extends classic ecology or basic ecology research to a new stage of ecosystem ecology or ecosystem science, which has laid a theoretical foundation for the scientific research of ecological environment at the global and continental scales, and has promoted the integration of biology, geography, and environmental science, and cross disciplinary of the natural sciences, humanities, and social economic sciences. During the integration processes, together with constantly absorbing nutrition from different disciplines, researches of eco-logy put forward a lot of scientific concepts or theories, and have been applied and developed in the relevant scientific research, formed contemporary ecology and ecosystem science system centered on the cognition of ecosystem, resource environment, and the mutual feedback relation with human society. We comprehensively discussed the scientific concept, basic theory, and discipline system of contemporary ecology from the origin and development of ecological thought, the scientific connotation, and extension of ecological concept, etc., and tried to sort out, investigate, and analyze the scientific connotation, discipline category and discipline system of contemporary ecology, put forward the branch discipline system classification scheme of basic ecology and applied ecology, with the aim to provide references for perfecting and reconstructing the discipline system of contemporary ecology.
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    Soil C:N:P stoichiometry and nutrient dynamics in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations during different growth stages
    WANG Zhen-yu, WANG Tao, ZOU Bing-zhang, WANG Si-rong, HUANG Zhi-qun, WAN Xiao-hua
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (11): 3597-3604.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202011.005
    Abstract279)      PDF(pc) (1214KB)(82)       Save
    We investigated soil C:N:P stoichiometry and nutrient dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations at different stand ages (5, 8, 21, 27 and 40 years old) in Fujian Baisha Fores-try Farm. We measured the concentrations of soil total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), total calcium (Ca), total magnesium (Mg), and soil C:N:P stoichiometry at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-40 cm soil layers during different growth stages. The results showed that soil TC and TN concentrations and C:N remained unchanged during stand development. Soil TP content showed an increase-decrease-increase trend with increasing stand ages. Soil TP content was lowest, whereas C:P and N:P were highest at the mature stage of C. lanceolate plantation in the 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers. However, soil TP content showed no significant differences in all stand ages at the 20-40 cm soil layer. The contents of Ca and Mg were lowest at the mature stage of C. lanceolata stand. The TC was positively correlated with soil C:N, C:P and N:P. The TP was significantly and negatively correlated with soil C:P and N:P. Soil TP was a key factor regulating soil C:P and N:P stoichiometry. The development of mature plantation was mainly limited by soil P availability. To sustain the development of C. lanceolata plantations and improve nutrient cycling, phosphorus fertilizer could be applied during the rapid growth period of C. lanceolata. In addition, an appropriate extension of the rotation period of C. lanceolata plantation could facilitate soil nutrient restoration.
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    Thinking on large-scale terrestrial ecosystem management and its theoretical fundament and practice
    YU Gui-rui, YANG Meng, FU Chao, WANG Qiu-feng, CHEN Zhi
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (3): 771-787.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202103.040
    Abstract233)      PDF(pc) (3769KB)(1)       Save
    Ecosystem management at large scales is one of the core solutions to solve current global challenges of environmental and resources problem, mitigate climate change, govern ecosystems and environments regionally and achieve sustainable development. It is also a hotspot in the research and practice of conservation of global natural resources and ecosystems. Based on recalling and synthesizing of several large international actions on ecosystem management in the past two decades, this article rethought the concept of ecosystem management and its application from the perspective of discipline development of ecosystem management, theoretical fundaments and practices. The content included three parts: firstly, we reviewed the development of the scientific concept and practice of ecosystem management, discussed the connotations of the concept and redefined it, and summarized the practice of ecosystem management and its contribution to the development of the discipline. Secondly, we clarified the scientific and technological mission and basic tasks of ecosystem management, organized the discipline system of ecosystem management and its main research fields, summarized fundamental theories and the knowledge system of the science of ecosystem management, and clarified critical steps of ecosystem management actions, basic elements of management plans and management approaches. Finally, we proposed new trends of scientific research and the discipline development of ecosystem management, discussed the important spatial scales and its objects system of the scientific research on ecosystem management, proposed the cutting-edge scientific questions of global ecosystem management, integrative ecology thought and macro ecosystem approach. This review aimed at providing references for the scientific research and discipline deve-lopment of ecosystem management in China.
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    Research progress on soil aggregates and associated organic carbon in salinized soils
    WEI Shou-cai, XIE Wen-jun, XIA Jiang-bao, LIANG Ai-zhen
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (1): 369-376.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202101.026
    Abstract218)      PDF(pc) (520KB)(3)       Save
    Soil aggregate, as a basic component of soils, plays an important role in improving soil structure and enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The special soil properties induced by salinization, such as high ion concentrations (mainly Na+), shortage of organic material and bad condition of microbe, inhibit the formation and stability of soil aggregate. Therefore, it is important and meaningful to explore the dynamics of aggregate in salinized soils. Coastal wetland and inland salinized marsh wetland are important salinized ecosystems. We systematically summarized the progress and achievements on soil aggregate in salinized agriculture and wetland ecosystems. Agricultural practices, such as organic and/or inorganic soil amendment application, tillage practice, vegetation type, straw return and saline water irrigation, advance the formation and stability of aggregate and aggregate-associated organic carbon in salinized soils. We discussed the problems and deficiency in the present studies of aggregate and aggregate-associated carbon in salinized soils as well as the research aspects and hot topics in the future. This review would be helpful for comprehensively understanding the advances and development directions on aggregate in salinized soils.
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    Discussion on the theoretical basis and technical system of large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science research
    YU Gui-rui, CHEN Zhi, YANG Meng, WANG Qiu-feng
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (2): 377-391.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202102.042
    Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (7692KB)(2)       Save
    Large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science research becomes an important research field with the promotion of meeting the scientific demand of biodiversity conservation, global climate change mitigation, regional eco-environment governance, and social sustainable development. It is developing rapidly under the guidance of China’s ecological civilization construction strategy. Here, we systematically discussed the missions, theoretical foundation and methodology of large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science research and proposed a new theoretical foundation, conceptual system and logical framework for macroecosystem science research on the basis of macrosystem ecology theory. It elaborated the discipline connotation and application of the macroecosystem science to 1) deve-lop the conceptual network of ecosystem science based on the systematic characteristics of ecosystems; 2) develop the theoretical system of ecosystem state change analysis based on the ecosystem integrity and emergence characteristics; 3) develop the theoretical system of integrated research for ecosystem structure-process-function-service cascade relationship based on the attributes and state of ecosystems. We also discussed the methodology and technical system of regional and continental macroecosystem science research, and highlighted the urgency to construct a new generation of continental ecosystem observation and research network, and to develop the network observation-network experiment-numerical simulation-knowledge fusion four-in-one infrastructures.
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    Characteristics of phosphorus fractions and their driving factors in forest soils with different parent materials in the mid-subtropics, China
    XIAO Hua-cui, LI Jing-wen, XIA Yun, YANG Liu-ming, LIN Yan-yu, FAN Yue-xin
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (1): 16-22.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202101.001
    Abstract199)      PDF(pc) (1098KB)(1)       Save
    With the aim to understand the influence degree and mechanism of parent material and forest type on soil phosphorus component, we analyzed soil P fractions, iron and aluminum oxides, microbial biomass, and phosphatase activity in Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest soils developed from two types of parent materials, sandstone and granite, in Sanming, Fujian Province. The results showed that both parent material and forest type significantly affected the contents of different P fractions. The contents of total P, labile inorganic/organic P, moderately labile inorganic/organic P, and non-labile P from sandstone-developed soils were significantly higher than those from granite-developed soils. Moreover, soil labile organic P, moderately labile inorganic/organic P and non-labile P fraction in sandstone-developed soils of C. carlesii forest were significantly higher than those of C. lanceolata forest, while the corresponding soil P fractions in granite-deve-loped soils had no significant difference between the two types of forests. The activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) in granite-developed soils was significantly higher than that in sandstone-developed soils under two types of forest, while soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and P (MBP) in sandstone-developed soils were significantly higher under C. carlesii forest than under C. lanceolata fo-rest. The content of soil P fractions was significantly positively correlated with the content of different forms of iron and aluminum oxides, MBP, and MBC, but negatively correlated with soil pH and acid phosphatase activity (ACP). Our results indicated that parent material and forest types might affect soil P fractions and characteristics mainly through altering soil iron and aluminum oxides, ACP, MBP in mid-subtropical forest soils.
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    Responses of forest soil microbial communities to drought and nitrogen deposition: A review
    ZHENG Yong, HE Ji-zheng
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2464-2472.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.035
    Abstract184)      PDF(pc) (544KB)(99)       Save
    Drought and nitrogen input are profoundly influencing most life on Earth and the substance cycling in forest ecosystems in the Anthropocene, with consequences on global carbon balance and feedback on climate changes. Soil microorganisms drive biogeochemical cycling and key ecological processes, with central role and global importance in climate change biology. Here, we reviewed the research in the area of the effects of drought and nitrogen deposition on soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi in forest ecosystems. We proposed that future studies should focus on how microbial diversity, activity, and ecological functioning respond to multiple global change factors and their interactions; how subtropical forest ecosystems respond to global changes on the basis of establishment of the long-term field experimental station; the interaction of different soil biological guilds; utilizing microbial big data to construct the relevant mechanistic models. Taken together, based on improved understanding of the responses of soil microbial diversity and community composition to global changes, further research may subsequently focus on manipulating the microbial communities to enhance forest management, ecological resources protection, and environmental sustainability. This review would provide some critical theoretical basis for the microbial strategy in mitigating climate change in future.
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    Identification of the priority conservation areas of national park: A case study of Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China
    HOU Meng, TANG Xiao-ping, HUANG Gui-lin, LI Ren-qiang
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2332-2340.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.015
    Abstract165)      PDF(pc) (2386KB)(38)       Save
    It is the goal of protected area management to make full use of limited resources to better protect biodiversity. Currently, the main tasks of developing national park system in China are to combine conservation features, optimize the spatial network of protected areas, and identify the prio-rity conservation areas of national parks effectively. In this study, we assessed the spatial distribution of key ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, oxygen release, hydrological regulation, water resources, and soil retention) using ecological model, and simulated the distribution of suitable habitats for 37 endangered species by MaxEnt in Lishui City, Zhejiang Province. The irreplaceability index of each planning unit in Lishui was calculated on the 0.4 km×0.4 km grid using the systema-tic conservation planning model (MARXAN), setting key ecosystem services and endangered species as the conservation objects. Combined with the local management needs, the priority protection areas of national parks were identified comprehensively. The results showed that during 2005 to 2015, the annual carbon storage, oxygen release, hydrological regulation, water resource, and soil retention in the study area was 0.05 kg C·m-2·a-1, 0.13 kg O2·m-2·a-1, 83.25×108 m3·a-1, 803 mm·a-1, and 95.53 t·hm-2·a-1, respectively. The irreplaceability index of different land use types was significantly different. The irreplaceability index of forest, river and reservoir, garden, cultivated land, residential land was 50-100, 60-100, 30-50, 15-35, 0-25, respectively. The priority conservation areas accounted for 11.8% of the study area. This study put forward a systematic conservation planning idea combining biodiversity and ecosystem services, which could provide a useful framework and technical support for optimizing the network layout of protected areas and priority conservation areas of national parks, and help to enhance the overall effectiveness of the establishment of the protected areas system with national parks as its main type in China.
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    Allelopathic interactions between Borreria latifolia and two common Asteraceae species
    ZHANG Tai-jie, TIAN Xing-shan, ZHANG Chun, WU Dan-dan
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2211-2218.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.004
    Abstract155)      PDF(pc) (697KB)(25)       Save
    Borrelia latifolia is an annual herb suitable to be used as cover crop for weed control in orchards in southern China. To understand the competition between B. latifolia and common weeds in orchards, we investigated the allelopathic interactions between B. latifolia and two Asteraceae species, Ageratum conyzoides and Bidens alba. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of B. latifolia at 10-50 mg·mL-1 significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of A. conyzoides and B. alba, with the radicle length of A. conyzoides and B. alba being reduced by 57.4%-90.2% and 57.3%-62.3%, respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides and B. alba also had strong allelopathic effects on seed germination of B. latifolia. Under the treatment of 50 mg·mL-1 aqueous extracts, the two Asteraceae species almost entirely inhibited the germination of B. latifolia. After treated with 10 mg·mL-1 aqueous extract of B. latifolia for 30 d, net photosynthesis, plant height and biomass of A. conyzoide were reduced by 15.2%, 20.6% and 41.5%, respectively, compared with the control, while the biomass of B. alba also showed a decreasing trend. Instead, the growth of B. latifolia was not affected. Under mixed culture, biomass of B. latifolia was comparable to that under monoculture, whereas those of A. conyzoides and B. alba were reduced by 86.0% and 27.1%, respectively. Compared with A. conyzoides and B. alba, the allelopathic advantage of B. latifolia is that it can inhibit growth of the two Asteraceae species as well as inhibit seed germination.
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    The “chemical defense” of plants against pathogenic microbes: Phytoalexins biosynthesis and molecular regulations
    WU Jinsong
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2161-2167.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.018
    Abstract152)      PDF(pc) (667KB)(32)       Save
    Plants can produce diverse groups of secondary metabolites to adapt to environment. Many secondary metabolites are involved in the defense responses against pathogenic microbes, including phytoanticipins which are low molecular weight anti-microbial compounds presented in plants before infection, and phytoalexins produced by plants de novo in response to pathogen attack. Phytoalexins are an important part of plant defense repertoire to pathogenic microbes, especially to necrotrophs. Since the concept of phytoalexin was proposed 80 years ago, many kinds of phytoalexins were identified. In contrast, the biosynthesis of most phytoalexins and their regulatory networks are largely unknown. In this review, I summarized recent research progress of phytoalexins in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana species, with special focus on molecular regulations of their biosynthesis. The problems and future directions in phytoalexin research were also discussed.
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    Surface water change characteristics of Taihu Lake from 1984-2018 based on Google Earth Engine
    LIU Yao-yi, TIAN Tian, ZENG Peng, ZHANG Xin-yu, CHE Yue
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (9): 3163-3172.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202009.011
    Abstract150)      PDF(pc) (2708KB)(25)       Save
    Lakes are important fresh water resources. Accurate understanding of lake dynamic changes benefits the sustainable development of water resources and socio-economic development. Based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE), we analyzed the dynamics of Taihu Lake from 1984 to 2018 by adopting the dataset of Joint Research Centre’s Global Surface Water and Landsat imagery. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) was used to explore the changes in the area of Taihu Lake in recent 35 years. The results showed that the area of Taihu Lake increased during 1984-2018, with a total increase of 45.31 km2. The area in spring and winter was larger than that in summer. Eastern Taihu Lake was the main part of Taihu Lake showing area change. Compared with 1984, 88.9% of the water area of Taihu Lake in 2018 did not change, and 0.3% of the water area disappeared permanently. Lake area changes were affected by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Agricultural irrigation, fish farming, reclamation of surrounding lakes, water conservancy engineering facilities, and the transformation of land-use types caused the reduction in lake area. Increased annual precipitation and the implementation of environmental protection policies were the main factors for the increases in lake area. The results provide reference for effective sustainable water resource management and verify the feasibility of monitoring long-term surface water change based on the GEE platform.
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    Spatiotemporal variations in leaf-out phenology of typical European tree species and their responses to climate change
    LIN Shao-zhi, GE Quan-sheng, WANG Huan-jiong
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (3): 788-798.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202103.019
    Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (5031KB)(1)       Save
    Over the past decades, global warming significantly affected the spring phenology of plants. Many studies have reported the temporal and spatial patterns of spring phenological changes in China, but relatively less is known for that in Europe, which is also located in the temperate area of the Northern Hemisphere. To facilitate the regional comparison of phenological change and understand its response to climate change, we used the data of first leaf date (FLD) in Europe (1980-2014) and the corresponding meteorological data to examine the spatiotemporal variations in leaf-out phenology of four typical tree species (Aesculus hippocastanum, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, and Quercus robur), and to identify the major climatic factors driving such variations. The results showed that the FLD of the four species in the study area advanced by 3.3-7.5 d·10 a-1 during 1980-2014. The FLD was delayed at a rate of 2.03-3.19 d per degree of latitude from south to north, of 0.19-0.80 d per degree of longitude from west to East (except for Fagus sylvatica), of 2.25-3.44 d·100 m-1 from low to high elevation. The advances in the FLD were mainly attributed to the increases of temperature in spring and the increases of precipitation in spring and winter. The rise of temperature in autumn and winter would delay FLD.
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    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer reduction and biochar application on paddy soil nutrient and nitrogen uptake of rice
    LIU Rui, HAFEEZ Abdul, LI En-lin, MENG Jia-lin, TIAN Ji-hui, CAI Kun-zheng
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2381-2389.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.025
    Abstract144)      PDF(pc) (2825KB)(37)       Save
    We explored the impacts of nitrogen (N) reduction and biochar application on soil fertility and nutrient uptake of rice in early and late seasons of 2018 with a field experiment. There were six treatments, including control (no N application, CK), conventional N application (N100), 20% N reduction (N80), 20% N reduction plus biochar application (N80+BC), 40% N reduction (N60), 40% N reduction plus biochar application (N60+BC). Our results showed that 20% and 40% N reduction and/or with biochar application did not affect soil pH, organic matter, total N, total phosphorous (P), total potassium (K), ammonium N, available P and K in comparison with N100 treatment. N80+BC and N60+BC substantially increased soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) at tillering stage and electrical conductivity (EC) at heading stage in late season, respectively. Compared with the treatment with single N reduction, N80+BC significantly increased soil available K in early and late seasons and soil pH and total N in late season, while N60+BC increased soil total K at mature stage in early season. Soil nitrate content was decreased along with the growth stages for all treatments in early season. Compared with tillering stage, soil nitrate N content in conventional N application at heading stage and mature stage was decreased by 50.0% and 71.6%, respectively. Soil nitrate content in biochar treatment only was decreased by 6.3%-45.5%. N application along with biochar application had no significant effects on plant N uptake and utilization in early season. However, N reduction with biochar application significantly increased plant N uptake and N utilization rate by 34.8%-52.4% in late season, compared to conventional N application and single N reduction. Our findings suggest that adequate N reduction along with biochar application could maintain soil health and improve plant N uptake and utilization efficiency.
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    Spatial distribution of plant diversity in shrub layer of Quercus variabilis plantation and its relationship with light environment
    YAN Dong-feng, HE Wen, YANG Xi-tian
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (11): 3605-3613.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202011.002
    Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (1245KB)(41)       Save
    We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of plant species diversity in shrub layers and its relationship with light environment in Quercus variabilis plantation and Q. variabilis-Platycladus orientali mixed forest, following the method of geostatistics. The results showed that plant species diversity indices (Shannon H, Simpson Ds, Margalef Ma) of shrub layers in Q. variabilis plantation were significantly lower than that in Q. variabilis-P. orientalis mixed forest. The variation ranges and spatial autocorrelation distances of plant species diversity index in Q. variabilis plantation were higher than that in Q. variabilis-P. orientalis mixed forest, with lower spatial homogeneity but stronger spatial dependence. The plant species diversity indices of H, Ds and Ma structural ratios of shrub layers in Q. variabilis pure forest were 44.2%-49.7%, with moderate spatial autocorrelation. The structure ratios of H, Ds and Ma in Q. variabilis-P. orientalis mixed forest were 1.5%-3.3%, with strong spatial autocorrelation. The spatial distribution of biodiversity showed obvious strip-like gradient trend in Q. variabilis plantation and patchy gradient change in Q. variabilis-P. orientalis mixed forest, suggesting that the spatial continuity of plant species of shrub layers was worse in Q. variabilis-P. orientalis mixed forest and that the spatial variation was stronger than that in Q. variabilis pure forest. Results of correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis showed that the total light and plant canopy openness were the most significant factors affecting plant species diversity of shrub layers in both forest types. Light environment formed by plant canopy structure played a crucial part in maintaining plant diversity in shrub layer.
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    Effects of alleolchemicals on morphological traits of roots: A meta-analysis
    YAN Shao-bin, WANG Peng
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2168-2174.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.001
    Abstract131)      PDF(pc) (655KB)(61)       Save
    Allelopathy is a plant-plant interaction mediated by the allelochemicals, which directly or indirectly influence plant growth. As the major part in response to allelochemicals, root morphological traits play an important role in allelopathy research. The global pattern of effects of exogenous allelochemicals on root morphology is not well known. We carried out a meta-analysis based on 61 studies to assess the effects of allelochemicals, including phenols, terpenoids, nitrogen-containing allelochemicals, on root morphology, especially on root length. We found that the allelochemicals significantly inhibited root length, but had little effect on root biomass, root surface area, and root volume. Phenols exhibited the most inhibitory effects on root length, while the allelochemicals had more inhibitory effect on root length of herbs than woody species as well as crops and other species. There was a linear relationship between phenols concentrations and their effect size. We quantified the dose-effect relationship of four phenolic acids, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid and cinnamic acid. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on root length was significantly higher than that of phenolic acids. Together, these findings suggested that the responses of target plant root traits to allelochemicals depended on allelochemicals type and dose, species identity, and culture conditions. Future studies need to decipher the mechanism underlying the allelochemicals on root traits of morphology, physiology and architecture under soil environment.
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    Effects of microbial agents on bacterial community composition during swine manure composting
    WANG Jian-cai, ZHU Rong-sheng, LIU Xing-hua, SUN Shou-li, WANG Huai-zhong, TANG Qian, QI Bo, HUANG Bao-hua
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2449-2456.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.033
    Abstract130)      PDF(pc) (1252KB)(38)       Save
    The process of swine manure and wheat straw aerobic composting was examined, with exogenous microbial agents being added in treatment group. The physicochemical properties were measured by conventional methods, and bacterial community characteristics were investigated by high throughput sequencing analysis. Exogenous microbial agents increased high-temperature duration, reduced pH value at the end of fermentation stage, augmented total nitrogen content, reduced C/N ratio. Results from principal component analysis showed that microbial agents affected the stability of bacterial community during composting. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in the treatment group. At the class level, the relative abundance of Clostridia, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria in the treatment group were higher at the mesophilic and thermophilic phases. At the family level, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiaceae_1, and Halanaerobiaceae of the Clostridia and Micromonosporaceae in the treatment group were higher at the mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Halocella was significantly positively correlated with exogenous microbial agents, while Ammoniibacillus was significantly negatively correlated with it. It suggested that microbial agents significantly changed the physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure during swine composting.
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    Dynamic change and prediction of vegetation cover in Shenzhen, China from 2000 to 2018
    WU Bing-lun, SUN Hua, SHI Jun-nan, ZHANG Yu-tian, SHI Ling-jie
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (11): 3777-3785.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202011.012
    Abstract130)      PDF(pc) (3150KB)(8)       Save
    With landsat-series multi-temporal image data, percentage of vegetation cover (PVC) was estimated by pixel dichotomy. The linear regression analysis and center of gravity migration methods were used to explore the characteristics of the spatiotemporal changes of vegetation cover in Shenzhen from 2000 to 2018. The CA-Markov model was combined to predict future land cover in Shenzhen. The results showed that the PVC in Shenzhen demonstrated obvious regional differentiation characteristics from 2000 to 2018. The eastern region occupied larger proportion than the wes-tern part, while the southern region was larger than the north part. This feature exhibited good consistency with regional topographic effect. The spatial migration characteristic of the center of gravity of PVC was from northwest to southeast, and then from southeast to northwest, with a migration rate of 551.2 m·a-1. This process was closely related to urbanization in Shenzhen. The PVC in Shen-zhen tended to be generally improved from 2000-2018, with a improvement rate of 0.005·a-1. The percentage of significantly improved and degraded PVC area was 30.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The CA-Markov method was used to predict the land cover/use pattern of Shenzhen in 2024 under two scenarios, theoretical scenario and natural scenario. There was no significant difference in proportion of the area of the land cover/use patterns obtained by the two kinds of prediction method, with the difference threshold being 0-1.2%. Compared with the data before 2018, the proportion of arbor forests and arable land converted into construction land in Shenzhen would be significantly reduced in 2024, whereas the contradiction between supply and demand would be still tense.
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    Understory plant species diversity and allelochemicals in rhizosphere soils of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with different densities
    LI Jin-jin, ZHANG Jian, ZHANG A-juan, WU Jiao, ZHANG Dan-ju
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2020, 31 (7): 2175-2184.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202007.003
    Abstract129)      PDF(pc) (1439KB)(48)       Save
    To explore the influencing factors of understory plant species diversity of Eucalyptus grandis, we examined understory plant species diversity and phenolic allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soils of four-year-old and eight-year-old E. grandis plantations with different densities (1200, 1600, 2000 ind·hm-2) in Danling County of Sichuan Province. The results showed that a total of 45 plant species were recorded, belonging to 33 families and 44 genera. With the increases of stand age and decreases of stand density, plant species richness increased and their importance values were evenly distributed. Phanerophytes was the dominant life form across all stands. Shannon index and Margalef index of shrub in the four-year-old E. grandis plantations increased significantly at the density of 1600 ind·hm-2. All herbage plant diversity index except for Margalef index in four-year-old ones and Pielou index in eight-year-old plantations increased significantly with the decreases of density. Shannon index and Margalef index of shrub in 1200 ind·hm-2 were significantly higher in eight-year-old E. grandis stands than those in four-year-old ones. Five phenolic allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soils of E. grandis plantations were identified. In four-year-old stands, salicylic acid concentrations decreased significantly at the density of 1600 ind·hm-2. The concentrations of chrysin in four-year-old stands reduced significantly with the decreases of density. The concentrations of salicylic acid in eight-year-old stands increased significantly with the decreases of tree density. Salicylic acid concentrations in 2000 ind·hm-2 were significantly higher in four-year-old stands than that in eight-year-old ones, but the result was opposite in stands with density of 1600 ind·hm-2. The concentrations of chrysin in stand with density of 1200 ind·hm-2 were significantly higher in eight-year-old stands than that in four-year-old ones. Rundancy analysis (RDA) result showed that soil pH, bulk density, and the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phospho-rus, and allelochemicals were the main environmental factors influencing understory plant species diversity. Therefore, prolonging rotation period and reducing stand density would improve micro-environmental condition of forests and buffer the allelopathy of E. grandis, which could facilitate the development of understory vegetation.
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    Research progress on the effects of urban road green space on dispersion of local air pollutant
    HU Yang, MA Ke-ming
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (1): 349-357.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202101.015
    Abstract128)      PDF(pc) (595KB)(2)       Save
    In recent years, the research on the effects of urban road green space on local pollutant dispersion has been quite active, with mounting empirical results. Due to the lack of summary and arrangement, however, it is difficult to effectively guide the practice of urban green space construction. In this review, the road and green belt research objects were classified. Based on two common methods of field measurement and numerical simulation, the pollutant concentration index, vegetation characters and other influencing factors involved in relevant research were systematically reviewed. The effects of road green space on dispersion of local pollution were summarized. Future research should be strengthened in the aspects of expanding research objects, comprehensively considering multiple ecological processes, integrating two basic methods, and improving the accuracy and richness of data.
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    Spatial-temporal variations of carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in China’s national forest parks
    LI Wei, HUANG Mei, ZHANG Yuan-dong, GU Feng-xue, GONG He, GUO Rui, ZHONG Xiu-li, YAN Chang-rong
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2021, 32 (3): 799-809.   DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202103.015
    Abstract128)      PDF(pc) (2251KB)(0)       Save
    Forests play an important role in regulating climate change and maintaining carbon balance. To explore the carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate of national forest parks is of great significance for carbon sequestration capacity assessment and sustainable forest management. A process-based ecosystem model (CEVSA2 model) was used to simulate the spatial distribution of carbon density, carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate of 881 national forest parks in China during 1982-2017. The results showed that the average carbon density of national forest parks was 255.18 t C·hm-2, being higher than the average carbon density of forest ecosystem in China. In 2017, the total carbon storage of national forest parks increased to 3.56 Pg C, accounting for 11.0%-12.2% of the total carbon storage in national forest ecosystems. During 1982-2017, the average carbon sequestration rate of national forest parks reached 0.45 t C·hm-2·a-1, and the carbon sequestration rate of all national forest parks was above 0.30 t C·hm-2·a-1. National forest parks in the northeast and southwest of China had the highest total carbon storage. The national forest parks in northeast of China had the highest soil organic carbon sequestration rate, while those in eastern China and central southern China had the highest biomass carbon sequestration rate. The area of national forest parks accounted for 5.8% of the total forest area of China, playing an important role in forest carbon sink management of China. Accurate assessment of the growth status, carbon sequestration potential and carbon absorption characteristics of national forest parks could provide reference for the comprehensive assessment of ecosystem service of forest parks in China.
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