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    Physiological metabolism and protective enzyme activity of Equisetum ramosissimum under Cu stress
    LI Ying;LIU Dengyi
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2806)      PDF(pc) (407KB)(4589)       Save
    The study with pot culture experiment showed that Equisetum ramosissimum did not appear obvious poisoning symptoms when treated with low concentration Cu (500 mg·kg-1),while serious injuries were found when treated with high concentration Cu (1 000~3 000 mg·kg-1),which reflected in the severe damage of cell membrane and cytoarchitecture as well as the structure and function of main organelles,and the significant decrease of the contents of leaf chlorophyll a and b and stem soluble monosaccharose.The cell membrane osmolarity and the average MDA content of the plant exposed to heavy copper pollution was 1~2 and 1~3 times greater than the control,respectively.It could be concluded that high concentration Cu disturbed the physiological metabolism,and critically threatened the normal growth of E.ramosissimum.The activities of protective enzyme,especially of SOD and POD,were enhanced with increasing Cu concentration,and had a positive correlation with Cu concentration (rPOD=0.978,rSOD=0.926,P<0.05).
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    Distribution patterns of Fraxinus mandshurica root biomass,specific root length and root length density
    MEI Li1;WANG Zhengquan1;HAN Youzhi1,2;GU Jiacun1;WANG Xiangrong1;CHENG Yunhuan1;ZHANG Xiujuan1
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract3407)      PDF(pc) (388KB)(4450)       Save
    Employing soil core method,an investigation in Maoershan Experiment Station was made on the root biomass,specific root length (SRL),and root length density (RLD) of Fraxinus mandshurica plantation (17 yr) within a growth season in stand level.The results showed that the total root biomass was 1 637 g·m-2,in which,living biomass accounted for 85%,and necrotic biomass was 15%.In the living biomass,coarse roots (5~30 mm in diameter) had the highest percentage (69.95%),followed by fine roots (<1 mm in diameter) (13.53%),medium roots (2~5 mm in diameter) (7.21%),and small roots (1~2 mm in diameter) (9.31%).Among the four diameter classes,fine roots had a higher SRL (32.20 m·g-1),while coarse roots had a lower one (0.08 m·g-1).The total RLD in living biomass was 6 602.54 m·m-2 in stand level,among which,fine root accounted for 92.43%,and the others was less than 8%.Fine root biomass and RLD had a positive correlation with soil available nitrogen,while no significant correlation was found between SRL and soil available nitrogen.
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    Distribution pattern and dynamics of Alnus nepalensis and Litsea glutinosa populations in Nomascus concolor habitat
    TIAN Changcheng1,2;ZHOU Shoubiao1;JIANG Xuelong2
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2797)      PDF(pc) (425KB)(3922)       Save
    Alnus nepalensis and Litsea glutinosa are the two common trees in the habitats of black-crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain of Yunnan Province.With the nearest neighbor method and Heygi’scompetition index model for individual tree,this paper analyzed the distribution patterns of the two populations and their competition.The results showed that A.nepalensis had a random distribution at its different growth phases,while L.glutinosa,the companion species of A.nepalensis,exhibited the trend of random distribution-clumped distribution-regular distribution.Interspecific competition and biological characters had significant effects on the distribution patterns of A.nepalensis and L.glutinosa.Regression age structure was observed in A.nepalensis population,while increasing age structure presented in L.glutinosa population.
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    Molecular mechanisms of insect pests-induced plant defense.
    LI Xin-gang1; LIU Hui-xia2;HUANG Jian1
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2427)      PDF(pc) (656KB)(2989)       Save
    This paper reviewed the newest research advances in insect pestsinduced plant defense, including insect pests-induced system wounding signals of plants, elicitors of insects, indirect defense, direct defense, and negative defense. In the interactions between plants and insect pests, plants can use the induced defensive substances to counteract insect pests, while the latter can use their specific elicitors to beat plant defense. This paper also compared the four metabolic pathways involved in indirect defense, i.e., lipoxygenase pathway, isoprenoid pathway, shikimate pathway, and extrfloral nectar, discussed the release mechanisms of induced volatile organic compounds in plants, and illustrated the conception of direct defense, defensive substances, and their action mechanisms. Finally, the research advances in the mechanisms of inset pests-induced negative defense of plants were reviewed, with the focus on the molecular mechanisms of insect pests-induced defense of forests.
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    Application of stable carbon isotope technique in the research of carbon cycling in soil-plant system.
    LIU Wei;Lü Hao-hao;CHEN Ying-xu; WU Wei-xiang
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2453)      PDF(pc) (287KB)(2840)       Save
    As a main life element, carbon plays important role in the matter cycling in soilplant system. Stable carbon isotope 13C has been widely used in the study of carbon cycling in soil-plant system, due to its safe, no pollution, and easy to be handled. Through the analysis of both natural and labeled 13C organic matter in soil-plant system, a better understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, the distribution of photosynthates in plant-soil system, the fate of plant litter, and the source of new carbon in soil could be achieved. In this paper, the applications of stable carbon isotope technique in the researches of photosynthesis, reconstruction of paleoclimate, turnover of soil organic matter, and interactions between plants and rhizosphere microorganisms were briefly summarized, and the perspectives of the application of stable carbon isotope technique were also discussed, based on the issues existed in current researches.
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    Form transformation of arsenic in soil and corresponding analyzing methods.
    HE Qiu-hong; ZENG Xi-bai
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2418)      PDF(pc) (202KB)(2833)       Save
    Based on the analysis of the sources and existing forms of soil arsenic, this paper approached the inter-transformation of different arsenic forms in soil. In the meanwhile, the extraction and determination methods of different soil arsenic forms were also compared. It was considered that HPLC-HG-AFS had the advantages of high sensitivity, low detection limit, better selectivity, low operation cost, and less inter-transformation of different arsenic forms, being able to be used as the prior method for the detection of different arsenic forms. Combining with previous research results, the form transformation of arsenic in soil and the promising research aspects were also discussed.
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    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2221)      PDF(pc) (614KB)(2658)       Save
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    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2297)      PDF(pc) (267KB)(2633)       Save
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    Ecosystem services and their economic valuation
    Ouyang Zhiyun, Wang Rusong, Zhao Jingzhu
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    1999, 10 (5): 635-640.  
    Abstract3909)      PDF(pc) (638KB)(2618)       Save
    Ecosystem services imply the natural environmental conditions and their effectiveness formed and sustained by ecosystems and ecological processes, on which, human life relies for existence. They not only supply human with the production of ecosystem goods, such as food, forage, timber, fuel, natural fiber and pharmaceuticals, but also perform fundamental life support services, which include the purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, regulation of climate, regeneration of soil fertility, production and maintenance of biodiversity, and mitigation of floods, droughts, and wind and water erosions. It is recognized that ecosystem services are essential to civilization. In recent years, people pay more and more attentions on the research of ecosystem services, and ecologists and economists discuss in succession the connotations and the valuation methods of ecosystem services, which have become the frontier's topics in ecology and ecological economics. In this paper, the research advances and tendencies in ecosystem services, their economic valuation and their relations to sustainable development are literaturally surveyed and discussed.
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    Relationships between row crop evapotranspiration and two sources-energy partition and exchange under non-water stress condition
    YU Chan1;Chaolunbagen1;GAO Ruizhong1;CHAI Jianhua2
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2248)      PDF(pc) (11570KB)(2569)       Save
    crop coefficient approach presented in FAO-56,this paper estimated the available energy partitioned into two sources,canopy and soil surface (Ac and As),and the latent and sensible heat fluxes,λEc,λEs,Hc and Hs.The results showed that under non-water stress condition,the interaction between Hc and λEc made canopy absorbed a micro-advection to enhance transpiration expressed by latent heat flux,with the value of (λEci-Aci).The greatest enhancement of transpiration occurred at the crop development stage with leaf area index between 0.6 and 2.4,and the average of the enhancement was 4.32 MJ·m-2·d-1.Soil evaporation was in progress with a rate below the available energy of soil,due to the interaction between Hc and λEc under non-water stress condition,except a few days immediately after heavy rain.The evaporation rate depended on the percentage of soil available energy dissipated as latent heat flux.The average value of minimum percentage,11.5%,occurred at mid-season stage,while that of maximum percentages,51.9%,occurred at initial stage.Latent heat fluxes were the important components of energy exchange during the process of evapotranspiration.The available energy dissipated as latent heat fluxes of the two sources during crop development,mid-season,and late season stages accounted for over 83% of the total energy.
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    Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: A review.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2011, 22 (03): 549-555.  
    Abstract2409)      PDF(pc) (13517KB)(2564)       Save
    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.
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    Effects of temperature and illumination on flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics and senescence of wheat cultivars with different grain quality.
    ZHANG Li-ping; JING Qi; DAI Ting-bo; JIANG Dong; CAO Wei-xing 
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2471)      PDF(pc) (553KB)(2429)       Save
    Taking wheat cultivars Yumai 34 (high protein content in grain) and Yangmai 9 (low protein content in grain) as test materials, and by the method of growth chamber, this paper studied the effects of different combinations of temperature and illumination on the photosynthetic characteristics and senescence of their flag leaves at grain-filling stage. The results showed that both high temperature and low illumination had negative effects on the photosynthesis. They decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) significantly, but their action mechanisms were differed. High temperature mainly decreased the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) and Pn, while low illumination mainly decreased the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and ΦPSⅡ, and thus, inhibited the activity of PSⅡ. High temperature increased the MDA content and decreased the soluble protein content and SOD activity, resulting in the acceleration of senescence, while low illumination increased the SOD activity and slowed down the senescence. Yumai 34 was more sensitive to high temperature and low illumination than Yangmai 9.
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    Quantitative changes of phenolic acids in Larix gmelinii needles induced by leaf damage.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2010, 21 (04): 1000-1006.  
    Abstract2196)      PDF(pc) (1039KB)(2427)       Save
    Phenolic acids are the important secondary metabolites associated with induced plant responses. Taking the Larix gmelinii seedlings with their needles on 4 selected branches being partially cut off or fed by Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) larvae as test objects, this paper quantitatively determined the phenolic acid concentrations in the undamaged needles by using HPLC. One day after 50% of the needles on the branches were cut off or fed by D. superans larvae, the concentrations of benzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, phenylaetic acid, cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sylicylic acid, and chlorogenic acid in undamaged needles had significant difference with the control; and one day after 75% of the needles were cut off or fed by D. superans larvae, the concentrations of the 9 phenolic acids and ferulic acid changed significantly. These results implied that cutting off or feeding with 50% or 75% of the needles could cause the concentrations of phenolic acids in needles reach the damage thresholds to induce chemical defense of larch seedlings. On the first day after treatment, the concentrations of caffeic acid, phenylaetic acid, cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, and gallic acid in needles induced by 50% and 75% of cutting were all significantly higher than those induced by larvae feeding; on the 5th day after treatment, the concentrations of these 5 phenolic acids induced by 50% and 75% of cutting were significantly lower than those induced by feeding; while on the 10th day after treatment, the concentrations of the 5 phenolic acids had no significant difference between cutting and feeding. It suggested that the quantitative changes of phenolic acids in larch needles induced by cutting were more rapidly than those induced by feeding, and the induced defense response intensity of phenolic acids was correlative with cutting degree. All of the results showed that it was possible to control the pest damage of L. gmelinii by using appropriate methods to induce the quantitative change of phenolic acids in needles.
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    Research advances in species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2009, 20 (09): 2301-2307.  
    Abstract3423)      PDF(pc) (287KB)(2416)       Save
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one of the important components
    of biodiversity in ecosystems. They are rich in species diversity, genetic diver
    sity, and function diversity. Their taxonomy position moved forward to phylum, a
    nd there are 214 species belonging to 19 genera, 13 families, 4 orders, and 1 cl
    ass reported in the world. AM fungi play a vital role in keeping ecological bala
    nce and enhancing ecosystem sustainable productivity. This paper reviewed the re
    search advances in the species diversity of AM fungi distributed globally, the k
    ey factors affecting this species diversity in various ecosystems, and related r
    egulation pathways. It was considered that molecular biological techniques would
     be the main approaches in the future study of AM fungal species diversity.
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    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2062)      PDF(pc) (424KB)(2414)       Save
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    Changes of soil biological characters beneath greenhouse cucumber under different cultivation systems.
    ZHANG Xue-yan;TIAN Yong-qiang;LIU Jun;GAO Li-hong
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2351)      PDF(pc) (455KB)(2260)       Save
    A 3-year pot experiment with 8-year continuously cropped greenhouse cucumber soil was conducted to study the effects of different cultivation systems on the soil quality, soil nematode quantity, and crop yields. The third year’s data were taken into analysis. Comparing with traditional cultivation system (two seasons planting cucumber with fallowing in summer), planting leafy vegetable and garlic in summer increased the yields of the two crops and the soil microbial biomass carbon content, total microbial population, and sucrase activity, decreased the amounts of soil nematode and root-knot nematode, and maintained a relative high Shannon-Weaver index. Planting crown daisy, garlic, and spinach in summer increased soil sucrase activity by 89%, 895%, and 369%, and the planting of crown daisy and garlic also increased the Shannon-Weaver index by 77% and 94%, respectively. All the results suggested that catching crop and rotation had definite restoration effects on the soil quality under continuously cropping of cucumber, and the effects of planting crown daisy and garlic were more significant.
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    Action mechanisms of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): A review.
    KANG Yi-Jun, CHENG Ji, MEI Li-Juan, HU Jian, PIAO Zhe, YAN Shi-Hua
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2010, 21 (01): 232-238.  
    Abstract6280)      PDF(pc) (304KB)(2169)       Save
    Plants during their growth may suffer from many biotic and abiotic stresses, resulting in a decrease of biological production. They may also establish some mechanisms to resist or tolerate the stresses under the stimulation or induction by a variety of factors, among which, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an important one. In this paper, the recently published papers related to this subject were reviewed, and two categories of the action mechanisms of PGPR, namely, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and induced systemic tolerance (IST), were elaborated. The diversity of the action mechanisms of PGPR implied that PGPR could be applied in more agro-ecosystems.
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    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2301)      PDF(pc) (319KB)(2163)       Save
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    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology   
    Abstract2223)      PDF(pc) (265KB)(2163)       Save
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    Current situation and prospect on the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals
    LONG Xinxian, YANG Xiao'e, NI Wuzhong
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology    2002, (6): 757-762.  
    Abstract1929)      PDF(pc) (744KB)(2155)       Save
    Physio-chemical techniques and phytoremediation are the important methods for solving heavy metal pollution of evironment.According to the processes and mechanisms of reactions,physio-chemical techniques can be divided into chemical immobilization,soil washing and electrokinetic remediation,while phytoremediation includes phyto-stabilization,phyto-volatilization and phyto-extraction.The principles,advantages,disadvantages,feasibility and future research trends of the techniques were reviewed.
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