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Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology ›› 2023, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 883-891.doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202304.034

• Special Features of Black Soil Protection and Agricultural Sustainable Development • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of the construction of fertile and cultivated soil layer on soil fertility and maize yield in Albic soil

LU Xinchun1, FAN Xinxin2, ZOU Wenxiu1, YAN Jun1, CHEN Xu1, HAN Xiaozeng1*, DENG Weina3   

  1. 1Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China;
    2Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China;
    3Fujin Agricultural Technology Extension Center, Fujin 156100, Heilongjiang, China
  • Received:2022-12-14 Accepted:2023-03-19 Online:2023-04-15 Published:2023-10-15

Abstract: We examined the effects of fertile soil layer construction technology on soil fertility and maize yield with a 3-year field experiment in Albic soil in Fujin, Heilongjiang Province. There were five treatments, including conventional tillage (T15, without organic matter return) and fertile soil layer construction methods [deep tillage (0-35 cm) with straw return, T35+S; deep tillage with organic manure, T35+M; deep tillage with straw and organic manure return, T35+S+M; deep tillage with straw, organic manure return and chemical fertilizer, T35+S+M+F]. The results showed that: 1) compared with the T15 treatment, maize yield was significantly increased by 15.4%-50.9% under fertile layer construction treatments. 2) There was no significant difference of soil pH among all treatments in the first two years, but fertile soil layer construction treatments significantly increased soil pH of topsoil (0-15 cm soil layer) in the third year. The pH of subsoil (15-35 cm soil layer) significantly increased under T35+S+M+F, T35+S+M, and T35+M treatments, while no significant difference was observed for T35+S treatment, compared with T15 treatment. 3) The fertile soil layer construction treatments could improve the nutrient contents of the topsoil and subsoil layer, especially in the subsoil layer, with the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and available potassium being increased by 3.2%-46.6%, 9.1%-51.8%, 17.5%-130.1%, 4.4%-62.8%, 22.2%-68.7% under the subsoil layer, respectively. The fertility richness indices were increased in the subsoil layer, and nutrient contents of the subsoil layer were close to those of topsoil layer, indicating that 0-35 cm fertile soil layer had been constructed. 4) Soil organic matter contents in the 0-35 cm layer were increased by 8.8%-23.2% and 13.2%-30.1% in the second and third years of fertile soil layer construction, respectively. Soil organic carbon storage was also gradually increased under fertile soil layer construction treatments. 5) The carbon conversion rate of organic matter was 9.3%-20.9% under T35+S treatment, and 10.6%-24.6% under T35+M, T35+S+M, and T35+S+M+F treatments. The carbon sequestration rate was 815.7-3066.4 kg·hm-2·a-1 in fertile soil layer construction treatments. The carbon sequestration rate of T35+S treatment increased with experimental periods, and soil carbon content under T35+M, T35+S+M and T35+S+M+F treatments reached saturation point in the experimental second year. Construction of fertile soil layers could improve the fertility of topsoil and subsoil and maize yield. In term of economic benefits, combination application of maize straw, organic material and chemical fertilizer within 0-35 cm soil, cooperating with conservation tillage, is recommended for the Albic soil fertility improvement.

Key words: albic soil, deep tillage with straw return, organic fertilizer return, soil fertility, yield